Oracle Database 11g Administration Workshop II Volume I Student Guide

September 15, 2017 | Author: middela6503 | Category: Oracle Database, Backup, Grid Computing, Databases, Computer Cluster
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Oracle Database 11g Administration Workshop II Volume I Student Guide...

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Volume I • Student Guide

D50079GC20 Edition 2.0 September 2009 D62543

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Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop II

Author

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Maria Billings

Disclaimer

Christian Bauwens Yanti Chang Timothy Chien Joe Fong Andy Fortunak Gerlinde Frenzen Mark Fuller Peter Fusek Joel Goodman Vimala Jacob Dominique Jeunot Pete Jones Fukue Kawabe Donna Keesling Sean Kim Achiel Langers

This document contains proprietary information and is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws. You may copy and print this document solely for your own use in an Oracle training course. The document may not be modified or altered in any way. Except where your use constitutes "fair use" under copyright law, you may not use, share, download, upload, copy, print, display, perform, reproduce, publish, license, post, transmit, or distribute this document in whole or in part without the express authorization of Oracle. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the document, please report them in writing to: Oracle University, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, California 94065 USA. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Restricted Rights Notice If this documentation is delivered to the United States Government or anyone using the documentation on behalf of the United States Government, the following notice is applicable: U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS The U.S. Government’s rights to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose these training materials are restricted by the terms of the applicable Oracle license agreement and/or the applicable U.S. Government contract. Trademark Notice Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Gwen Lazenby Jerry Lee Deidre Matishak Bill Millar Lakshmi Naraparreddi Ira Singer Ranbir Singh James Spiller Matt Taylor Branislav Valny Jean-Francois Verrier

Editors Nita Pavitran Raj Kumar

Graphic Designer Satish Bettegowda

Publisher Jayanthy Keshavamurthy

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Technical Contributors and Reviewers

I

Introduction Course Objectives I-2 Suggested Schedule I-3 Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid I-4 Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance I-6 Course Examples: HR Sample Schema I-8

1

Core Concepts and Tools of the Oracle Database Objectives 1-2 Naming the Core Components of an Oracle Database Server 1-3 Oracle Database Server Architecture Overview 1-4 Instance-Database Configurations 1-6 Naming the Memory Structures of an Oracle Database 1-7 Oracle Database Memory Structures 1-8 Process Architecture 1-10 Process Structures 1-11 Adding Process Names 1-13 Process Startup Sequence 1-14 Database Storage Architecture 1-15 Logical and Physical Database Structures 1-17 Automatic Storage Management 1-19 ASM Storage Components 1-20 ASM Instance 1-21 DBA Configuration Tools 1-23 Management Framework and Related DBA Tools 1-25 Facilitating Database Management with Oracle Restart 1-26 Notes: Facilitating Database Management with Oracle Restart 1-27 Quiz 1-28 Summary 1-29

2

Configuring for Recoverability Objectives 2-2 Purpose of Backup and Recovery Functionality 2-3 Typical Backup and Recovery Tasks 2-4 Oracle Backup and Recovery Solutions 2-5

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Contents

Configuring ARCHIVELOG Mode 2-15 Configuring Archive Log Destinations 2-16 Guaranteeing Archive Log Success 2-17 Specifying a Retention Policy 2-19 A Recovery Window Retention Policy: Example 2-21 Using a Fast Recovery Area 2-22 Defining a Fast Recovery Area 2-24 Fast Recovery Area Space Management 2-25 Fast Recovery Area Space Usage 2-27 What Is Done Automatically for You 2-29 Monitoring the FRA 2-30 Benefits of Using a Fast Recovery Area 2-31 Quiz 2-32 Summary 2-34 Practice 2 Overview: Configuring for Recoverability 2-35 3

Using the RMAN Recovery Catalog Objectives 3-2 RMAN Repository Data Storage: Comparison of Options 3-3 Storing Information in the Recovery Catalog 3-4 Reasons to Use a Recovery Catalog 3-5 Creating the Recovery Catalog: Three Steps 3-6 Configuring the Recovery Catalog Database 3-7 Creating the Recovery Catalog Owner 3-8 Creating the Recovery Catalog 3-9 Managing Target Database Records in the Recovery Catalog 3-10 Registering a Database in the Recovery Catalog 3-11 Using Enterprise Manager to Register a Database 3-12 Unregistering a Target Database from the Recovery Catalog 3-13 Cataloging Additional Backup Files 3-14 Recovery Catalog Resynchronization: Concepts 3-16 Manually Resynchronizing the Recovery Catalog 3-17 Using RMAN Stored Scripts 3-18

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Oracle Backup Solutions 2-6 Terminology Review 2-7 What You Already Know: Oracle-Suggested Backup 2-9 Using Recovery Manager 2-10 Types of RMAN Commands 2-11 Job Commands: Example 2-12 Configuring Your Database for Backup and Recovery Operations 2-13 ARCHIVELOG Mode 2-14

4

Configuring Backup Settings Objectives 4-2 Configuring Persistent Settings for RMAN 4-3 Viewing Persistent Settings 4-4 Control File Autobackups 4-5 Managing Persistent Settings 4-7 Using a Media Manager 4-8 Specifying a Backup Destination 4-10 Configuring and Allocating Channels 4-11 Creating Duplexed Backup Sets 4-12 Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using CONFIGURE BACKUP COPIES 4-13 Backup Optimization 4-14 Saving Backup Space with Unused Block Compression 4-16 Compressing Backups 4-17 Using RMAN Backup Compression 4-18 Encrypting Backups 4-19 Quiz 4-20 Summary 4-22 Practice 4 Overview: Configuring Backup Specifications 4-23

5

Creating Backups with RMAN Objectives 5-2 Creating Backup Sets 5-3 Creating Image Copies 5-4 Creating a Whole Database Backup 5-6 RMAN Backup Types 5-8 Fast Incremental Backup 5-10

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Executing RMAN Stored Scripts 3-19 Maintaining RMAN Stored Scripts 3-20 Backing Up the Recovery Catalog 3-21 Re-Creating an Unrecoverable Recovery Catalog 3-22 Exporting and Importing the Recovery Catalog 3-23 Upgrading and Dropping the Recovery Catalog 3-24 IMPORT CATALOG Command 3-25 Creating and Using Virtual Private Catalogs 3-27 Using RMAN Virtual Private Catalogs 3-28 Recovery Catalogs Summary 3-30 Quiz 3-32 Summary 3-34 Practice 3 Overview: Using the RMAN Recovery Catalog 3-35

6

Restore and Recovery Tasks Objectives 6-2 Restoring and Recovering 6-3 Causes of File Loss 6-4 Critical Versus Noncritical 6-5 Automatic Tempfile Recovery 6-6 Log Group Status: Review 6-7 Recovering from the Loss of a Redo Log Group 6-8 Clearing a Log File 6-9 Recovering from a Lost Index Tablespace 6-10 Re-Creating Indexes 6-11 Authentication Methods for Database Administrators 6-13 Re-creating a Password Authentication File 6-14 Comparing Complete and Incomplete Recovery 6-16 Complete Recovery Process 6-17 Point-in-Time Recovery Process 6-18 Recovering a Read-Only Tablespace 6-20 Recovering NOLOGGING Database Objects 6-21 Recovering from the Loss of All Control File Copies: Overview 6-22 Recovering the Control File to the Default Location 6-23

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Enabling Fast Incremental Backup 5-11 Monitoring Block Change Tracking 5-12 Performing Proxy Copies 5-13 Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using BACKUP COPIES 5-14 Creating Backups of Backup Sets 5-15 Backing Up Read-Only Tablespaces 5-16 Configuring Backup and Restore for Very Large Files 5-17 Creating RMAN Multisection Backups 5-18 Archival Backups: Concepts 5-19 Creating Archival Backups with EM 5-21 Creating Archival Backups with RMAN 5-22 Managing Archival Database Backups 5-23 Backing Up Recovery Files 5-24 Managing Backups: Reporting 5-25 Managing Backups: Dynamic Performance Views 5-27 Using Enterprise Manager to View Backup Reports 5-28 Managing Backups: Cross-Checking and Deleting 5-29 Quiz 5-30 Summary 5-32 Practice 5 Overview: Creating Backups 5-33

7

Using RMAN to Perform Recovery Objectives 7-2 Using RMAN RESTORE and RECOVER Commands 7-3 Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a Noncritical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode 7-4 Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a System-Critical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode 7-5 Recovering Image Copies 7-6 Recovering Image Copies: Example 7-7 Performing a Fast Switch to Image Copies 7-8 Using SET NEWNAME for Switching Files 7-9 Substitution Variables for SET NEWNAME 7-10 Performing Restore and Recovery of a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode 7-11 Using Restore Points 7-12 Performing Point-in-Time Recovery 7-13 Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File 7-15 Recovery from Loss of Server Parameter File 7-16 Restoring the Server Parameter File from the Control File Autobackup 7-17 Restoring the Control File from Autobackup 7-18 Using Incremental Backups to Recover a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode 7-20 Restoring and Recovering the Database on a New Host 7-21 Preparing to Restore the Database to a New Host 7-22 Restoring the Database to a New Host 7-23 Performing Disaster Recovery 7-27 Quiz 7-29 Summary 7-31 Practice 7 Overview: Using RMAN to Perform Recovery 7-32

8

Monitoring and Tuning RMAN Objectives 8-2 Parallelization of Backup Sets 8-3 Monitoring RMAN Sessions 8-5 Monitoring RMAN Job Progress 8-7 Interpreting RMAN Message Output 8-9 Using the DEBUG Option 8-10 Interpreting RMAN Error Stacks 8-11 Tuning RMAN 8-12

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Quiz 6-24 Summary 6-26

9

Diagnosing the Database Objectives 9-2 Data Recovery Advisor 9-3 Data Failures 9-6 Data Failure: Examples 9-7 Data Recovery Advisor RMAN Command-Line Interface 9-8 Listing Data Failures 9-9 Advising on Repair 9-11 Executing Repairs 9-12 Classifying (and Closing) Failures 9-13 Data Recovery Advisor Views 9-14 Best Practice: Proactive Checks 9-15 What Is Block Corruption? 9-16 Block Corruption Symptoms: ORA-01578 9-17 How to Handle Corruption 9-18 Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption 9-19 Block Media Recovery 9-21 Prerequisites for Block Media Recovery 9-22 The RECOVER...BLOCK Command 9-23 Automatic Diagnostic Workflow 9-24 Automatic Diagnostic Repository 9-25 The ADR Command-Line Tool (ADRCI) 9-26 The V$DIAG_INFO View 9-27 Location for Diagnostic Traces 9-28

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RMAN Multiplexing 8-14 Allocating Disk Buffers: Example 8-15 Allocating Tape Buffers 8-16 Comparing Synchronous and Asynchronous I/O 8-18 Monitoring RMAN Job Performance 8-20 Asynchronous I/O Bottlenecks 8-21 Synchronous I/O Bottlenecks 8-22 Channel Tuning 8-23 Tuning the BACKUP Command 8-25 Tuning RMAN Backup Performance 8-27 Setting LARGE_POOL_SIZE 8-28 Tuning RMAN Tape Streaming Performance Bottlenecks 8-29 Quiz 8-31 Summary 8-33 Practice 8 Overview: Monitoring and Tuning RMAN 8-34

10 Using Flashback Technology I Objectives 10-2 Flashback Technology 10-3 Transactions and Undo 10-4 Guaranteeing Undo Retention 10-5 Preparing Your Database for Flashback 10-6 Using Flashback Technology to Query Data 10-8 Flashback Query 10-9 Flashback Query: Example 10-10 Flashback Version Query 10-11 Flashback Version Query: Considerations 10-12 Quiz 10-13 Flashback Table: Overview 10-15 Flashback Table 10-16 Enabling Row Movement on a Table 10-17 Performing Flashback Table 10-18 Flashback Table: Considerations 10-19 Quiz 10-20 Flashback Transaction Query 10-21 Using Enterprise Manager to Perform Flashback Transaction Query 10-22 Flashback Transaction Query: Considerations 10-23 Flashback Transaction 10-24 Prerequisites 10-25 Flashing Back a Transaction 10-26 Possible Workflow 10-27 Flashback Transaction Wizard 10-28 Choosing Other Back-out Options 10-29 Final Steps Without EM 10-31 Quiz 10-32 Summary 10-33 Practice 10 Overview: Performing Flashback Transaction Backout 10-34

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Health Monitor: Overview 9-29 Running Health Checks Manually: PL/SQL Example 9-30 Viewing HM Reports Using the ADRCI Utility 9-31 Quiz 9-32 Summary 9-36 Practice 9 Overview: Diagnosing the Database 9-37

12 Performing Flashback Database Objectives 12-2 Flashback Database 12-3 Flashback Database Architecture 12-4 Configuring Flashback Database 12-5 What You Need to Do 12-6 Flashback Database: Examples 12-7 Flashback Database Considerations 12-8 Monitoring Flashback Database 12-9 Monitoring Flashback Database with EM 12-11 Guaranteed Restore Points 12-12 Flashback Database and Guaranteed Restore Points 12-13 Quiz 12-15 Summary 12-17 Practice 12 Overview: Working with Flashback Database 12-18

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11 Using Flashback Technology II Objectives 11-2 Oracle Total Recall Overview 11-3 Setup Process 11-4 How Total Recall Works 11-5 Oracle Total Recall Scenario 11-6 Transparent Schema Evolution 11-8 Full Schema Evolution 11-9 Restrictions 11-10 Guidelines 11-11 Viewing Flashback Data Archives 11-12 Quiz 11-13 Flashback Drop and the Recycle Bin 11-15 Recycle Bin 11-16 Restoring Tables from the Recycle Bin 11-18 Recycle Bin: Automatic Space Reclamation 11-19 Recycle Bin: Manual Space Reclamation 11-20 Bypassing the Recycle Bin 11-21 Querying the Recycle Bin 11-22 Quiz 11-23 Summary 11-24 Practice 11 Overview: Using Flashback Technology 11-25

14 Managing Database Performance Objectives 14-2 Tuning Activities 14-3 Performance Planning 14-4 Instance Tuning 14-6 Performance Tuning Methodology 14-7 Performance Monitoring 14-8 Performance Tuning Data 14-9 Optimizer Statistics Collection 14-10 Statistic Preferences: Overview 14-12 Using Statistic Preferences 14-13 Setting Global Preferences with Enterprise Manager 14-14 Oracle Wait Events 14-15 Instance Statistics 14-16 Monitoring Session Performance 14-18 Displaying Session-Related Statistics 14-19 xi THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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13 Managing Memory Objectives 13-2 Memory Management: Overview 13-3 Reviewing Oracle Database Memory Structures 13-4 Buffer Cache 13-6 Using Multiple Buffer Pools 13-8 Shared Pool 13-10 Large Pool 13-11 Java Pool and Streams Pool 13-12 Redo Log Buffer 13-13 Automatic Memory Management: Overview 13-14 Oracle Database Memory Parameters 13-15 Monitoring Automatic Memory Management 13-16 Efficient Memory Usage: Guidelines 13-18 Memory Tuning Guidelines for the Library Cache 13-20 Automatic Shared Memory Management: Overview 13-22 How ASMM Works 13-23 Enabling Automatic Shared Memory Management 13-24 Disabling ASMM 13-25 Program Global Area (PGA) 13-26 Using the V$PARAMETER View 13-28 Quiz 13-29 Summary 13-30 Practice 13 Overview: Using AMM to Correct a Memory Allocation Problem 13-31

15 Managing Performance by SQL Tuning Objectives 15-2 SQL Tuning 15-3 SQL Advisors 15-4 Automatic SQL Tuning Results 15-5 Implement Automatic Tuning Recommendations 15-6 SQL Tuning Advisor: Overview 15-7 Using the SQL Tuning Advisor 15-8 SQL Tuning Advisor Options 15-9 SQL Tuning Advisor Recommendations 15-10 Using the SQL Tuning Advisor: Example 15-11 Duplicate SQL 15-12 SQL Access Advisor: Overview 15-13 Typical SQL Access Advisor Session 15-14 Workload Source 15-15 Recommendation Options 15-16 Reviewing Recommendations 15-18 SQL Performance Analyzer: Overview 15-19 SQL Performance Analyzer: Use Cases 15-20 Using SQL Performance Analyzer 15-21 Quiz 15-22 Summary 15-26 Practice 15 Overview: Managing Performance by SQL Tuning 15-27 16 Managing Resources Objectives 16-2 Database Resource Manager: Overview 16-3 Database Resource Manager: Concepts 16-4 Why Use Resource Manager 16-5 Default Maintenance Resource Manager Plan 16-7 xii THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Displaying Service-Related Statistics 14-20 Troubleshooting and Tuning Views 14-21 Dictionary Views 14-22 Automatic Workload Repository 14-23 Using Automatic Workload Repository Views 14-25 Real Application Testing Overview: Database Replay 14-26 The Big Picture 14-27 Quiz 14-28 Summary 14-29 Practice 14 Overview: Monitoring Instance Performance 14-30

16-22

17 Automating Tasks with the Scheduler Objectives 17-2 Simplifying Management Tasks 17-3 Core Components 17-4 Your Basic Work Flow 17-5 Quiz 17-7 Persistent Lightweight Jobs 17-8 Using a Time-Based or Event-Based Schedule 17-9 Creating a Time-Based Job 17-10 Creating an Event-Based Schedule 17-12 Creating Event-Based Schedules with Enterprise Manager 17-13 Creating an Event-Based Job 17-14 Event-Based Scheduling 17-15 Creating Complex Schedules 17-17 Quiz 17-18 Using Email Notification 17-19 Adding and Removing Email Notifications 17-20 Creating Job Chains 17-21 Example of a Chain 17-23 Advanced Scheduler Concepts 17-24 xiii THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Example: DEFAULT_PLAN 16-8 Potential Work Flow 16-9 Specifying Resource Plan Directives 16-11 Resource Allocation Methods for Resource Plans 16-12 Comparison of EMPHASIS and RATIO 16-13 Active Session Pool Mechanism 16-15 Setting the Active Session Pool 16-16 Specifying Thresholds 16-18 Setting Idle Timeouts 16-19 Limiting CPU Utilization at the Database Level 16-20 Limiting CPU Utilization at the Server Level: Instance Caging Instance Caging Examples 16-23 Monitoring Instance Caging 16-24 Resource Consumer Group Mapping 16-25 Activating a Resource Plan 16-27 Database Resource Manager Information 16-28 Monitoring the Resource Manager 16-29 Quiz 16-32 Summary 16-33 Practice 16 Overview: Using the Resource Manager 16-34

18 Managing Space Objectives 18-2 Space Management: Overview 18-3 Block Space Management 18-4 Row Chaining and Migration 18-5 Quiz 18-7 Free Space Management Within Segments 18-8 Types of Segments 18-9 Allocating Extents 18-10 Allocating Space 18-11 Creating Tables Without Segments 18-12 Controlling Deferred Segment Creation 18-13 Restrictions and Exceptions 18-14 Additional Automatic Functionality 18-15 Quiz 18-16 Table Compression: Overview 18-17 Compression for Direct-Path Insert Operations 18-18 OLTP Compression for DML Operations 18-20 Specifying Table Compression 18-21 Using the Compression Advisor 18-22 Using the DBMS_COMPRESSION Package 18-23 Compressing Table Data 18-24 Proactive Tablespace Monitoring 18-25 Thresholds and Resolving Space Problems 18-26 Monitoring Tablespace Space Usage 18-27 Shrinking Segments 18-28 xiv THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Job Classes 17-25 Windows 17-27 Prioritizing Jobs Within a Window 17-28 Creating a Job Array 17-29 Quiz 17-31 Creating a File Watcher and an Event-Based Job 17-32 Enabling File Arrival Events from Remote Systems 17-34 Scheduling Remote Database Jobs 17-35 Creating Remote Database Jobs 17-36 Scheduling Multiple Destination Jobs 17-37 Viewing Scheduler Meta Data 17-38 Quiz 17-40 Summary 17-41 Practice 17 Overview: Automating Tasks with the Scheduler 17-42

19 Managing Space for the Database Objectives 19-2 Database Storage 19-3 Supporting 4-KB Sector Disks 19-4 Using 4-KB Sector Disks 19-5 Specifying the Disk Sector Size 19-6 Quiz 19-7 Transporting Tablespaces 19-10 Concept: Minimum Compatibility Level 19-11 Minimum Compatibility Level 19-12 Transportable Tablespace Procedure 19-13 Determining the Endian Format of a Platform 19-14 Using the RMAN CONVERT Command 19-16 Transportable Tablespaces with Enterprise Manager 19-17 Transporting Databases 19-20 Database Transportation Procedure: Source System Conversion 19-21 Database Transportation Procedure: Target System Conversion 19-22 Database Transportation: Considerations 19-23 Quiz 19-24 Summary 19-25 Practice 19 Overview: Managing Space for the Database 19-26

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Results of Shrink Operation 18-29 Reclaiming Space Within ASSM Segments 18-30 Segment Advisor: Overview 18-31 Segment Advisor 18-32 Implementing Recommendations 18-33 Automatic Segment Advisor 18-34 Manual Segment Shrink Using EM 18-35 Shrinking Segments Using SQL 18-36 Managing Resumable Space Allocation 18-37 Using Resumable Space Allocation 18-38 Resuming Suspended Statements 18-40 What Operations Are Resumable? 18-42 Quiz 18-43 Summary 18-44 Practice 18 Overview: Managing Storage 18-45

Substitution Variables for SET NEWNAME 20-13 Specifying Parameters for File Naming 20-14 Starting the Instance in NOMOUNT Mode 20-16 Ensuring That Backups and Archived Redo Log Files Are Available 20-17 Allocating Auxiliary Channels 20-18 Understanding the RMAN Duplication Operation 20-19 Specifying Options for the DUPLICATE Command 20-21 Using Additional DUPLICATE Command Options 20-22 Using EM to Clone a Database 20-23 Quiz 20-24 Summary 20-25 Practice 20 Overview: Duplicating a Database 20-26 Appendix A: Practices and Solutions Appendix B: Performing Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery Objectives B-2 Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR): Concepts B-3 Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR): Terminology B-4 Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Architecture B-5 When to Use TSPITR B-7 Preparing for TSPITR B-8 Determining the Correct Target Time B-9 Determining the Tablespaces for the Recovery Set B-10 Identifying Relationships That Span Recovery Set Boundaries B-11 Identifying Objects That Will Be Lost B-12 Performing Basic RMAN TSPITR B-13 Performing Fully Automated TSPITR B-14

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20 Duplicating a Database Objectives 20-2 Using a Duplicate Database 20-3 Choosing Database Duplication Techniques 20-4 Duplicating an Active Database 20-5 Duplicating a Database with a Target Connection 20-6 Duplicating a Database with Recovery Catalog Without Target Connection 20-7 Duplicating a Database Without Recovery Catalog or Target Connection 20-8 Creating a Backup-Based Duplicate Database 20-9 Creating an Initialization Parameter File for the Auxiliary Instance 20-10 Specifying New Names for Your Destination 20-11 Using the SET NEWNAME Clauses 20-12

Appendix C: Performing User-Managed Backup and Recovery Objectives C-2 Types of Backup and Recovery Practices C-3 Performing a User-Managed Backup of the Database C-4 The Need for Backup Mode C-5 Identifying Files to Manually Backup C-6 Manually Backing Up a NOARCHIVELOG Database C-7 Manually Backing Up an ARCHIVELOG Database C-8 Backing Up the Control File C-9 Performing User-Managed Complete Database Recovery: Overview C-10 Performing Complete Closed Database Recovery: Overview C-11 Identifying Recovery-Related Files C-12 Restoring Recovery-Related Files C-13 Applying Redo Data C-15 Performing Complete Open Database Recovery C-16 Performing User-Managed Incomplete Recovery: Overview C-18 Choosing an Incomplete Recovery Method C-19 Performing User-Managed Incomplete Recovery C-20 Performing User-Managed Incomplete Recovery: Steps C-22 User-Managed Time-Based Recovery: Example C-23 User-Managed Cancel-Based Recovery: Example C-25 Summary C-27 Appendix D: Managing the ASM Instance Objectives D-2 ASM Benefits for Administrators D-3 ASM Instance D-4 ASM Components: ASM Instance—Primary Processes D-6 ASM Instance Initialization Parameters D-7 Interaction Between Database Instances and ASM D-9 ASM Instance: Dynamic Performance Views D-10 ASM System Privileges D-11 Using Enterprise Manager to Manage ASM Users D-12 xvii THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Using Image Copies for Faster TSPITR Performance B-15 Using Enterprise Manager to Perform TSPITR B-16 RMAN TSPITR Processing B-17 Performing RMAN TSPITR with an RMAN-Managed Auxiliary Instance B-19 Performing RMAN TSPITR Using Your Own Auxiliary Instance B-20 Troubleshooting RMAN TSPITR B-21 Summary B-22

Starting and Stopping ASM Instances Using asmcmd D-16 Disk Group Overview D-17 ASM Disks D-18 Allocation Units D-19 ASM Files D-20 Extent Maps D-21 Striping Granularity D-22 Fine Grained Striping D-23 ASM Failure Groups D-25 Stripe and Mirror Example D-26 Failure Example D-27 Managing Disk Groups D-28 Creating and Dropping Disk Groups Using SQL*Plus D-29 Adding Disks to Disk Groups D-30 Miscellaneous ALTER Commands D-31 ASM Management Using Enterprise Manager D-32 ASM Disk Group Compatibility D-33 ASM Disk Group Attributes D-35 Using Enterprise Manager to Edit Disk Group Attributes D-36 Retrieving ASM Metadata D-37 ASM Fast Mirror Resync Overview D-38 Summary D-39

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Starting and Stopping ASM Instances Using SQL*Plus D-13 Starting and Stopping ASM Instances Using srvctl D-15

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Introduction

After completing this course, you should be able to: • Configure the Oracle Database for optimal recovery • Back up and recover a database (and its parts) with Recovery Manager (RMAN) • Use flashback technology to view past states of data and to revert objects to a past state • Identify burdensome database sessions and poorly performing SQL • Use an appropriate and flexible memory configuration • Configure resource allocations among sessions and tasks • Schedule jobs to run inside or outside the database • Use compression to optimize database storage and duplicate a database Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Course Objectives In this course, you learn to: • Secure the availability of your database by using appropriate backup and recovery strategies • Diagnose and repair data failures with flashback technology • Monitor and manage major database components, including memory, performance, and resources • Automate DBA tasks with the scheduler • Manage space to optimize database storage and to be able to respond to growing space requirements

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Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop II I - 2

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Course Objectives

Suggested Schedule

1

2

3

1.

Day Lessons

2. 3. 4.

Core Concepts and Tools of the Oracle Database Configuring for Recoverability Using the RMAN Recovery Catalog Configuring Backup Settings

5. 6. 7. 8.

Creating Backups with RMAN Restore and Recovery Tasks Using RMAN to Perform Recovery Monitoring and Tuning RMAN

9. 10. 11. 12.

Diagnosing the Database Using Flashback Technology I Using Flashback technology II Performing Flashback Database

4

13. Managing Memory 14. Managing Database Performance 15. Managing Performance by SQL Tuning 16. Managing Resources 17. Automating Tasks with the Scheduler

5

18. Managing Space 19. Managing Space for the Database 20. Duplicating a Database

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Suggested Schedule This schedule is just a very general outline. Your instructor will determine the actual class schedule.

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Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop II I - 3

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Day Lessons

Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid Open Grid Forum (OGF) Oracle’s grid infrastructure: – Low cost – High quality of service – Easy to manage Storage grid

Database grid

Automatic Storage Management

Real Application Clusters

Application grid

Application Server Clusters

Grid control

Enterprise Manager Grid Control

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid Open Grid Forum (OGF) is a standards body that develops standards for grid computing. It comprises a set of committees and working groups that focus on various aspects of grid computing. The committees and working groups are composed of participants from academia, the research community, and (increasingly) commercial companies. You can see the website of OGF at http://www.ogf.org. Oracle has created the grid computing infrastructure software that balances all types of workloads across servers and enables all those servers to be managed as one complete system. Grid computing can achieve the same very high level of reliability as mainframe computing because all components are clustered. But unlike mainframes and large UNIX symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) servers, a grid can be built with open system technologies, such as Intel processors and the Linux operating system, at a very low cost. Oracle’s grid computing technology includes: • Automatic Storage Management (ASM) • Real Application Clusters (RAC) • Application Server Clusters • Enterprise Manager Grid Control

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• •

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Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop II I - 5

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Oracle Database 11g: “g” Stands for Grid (continued) Automatic Storage Management spreads database data across all disks, creates and maintains a storage grid, and provides the highest input/output (I/O) throughput with minimal management costs. As disks are added or dropped, ASM redistributes the data automatically. (There is no need for a logical volume manager to manage the file system.) Data availability increases with optional mirroring, and you can add or drop disks online. See the lesson titled “Managing Database Storage Structures.” Oracle’s Real Application Clusters runs and scales all application workloads on a cluster of servers and offers the following features: • Integrated clusterware: This includes functionality for cluster connectivity, messaging and locking, cluster control, and recovery. It is available on all platforms that are supported by Oracle Database 10g. • Automatic workload management: Rules can be defined to automatically allocate processing resources to each service both during normal operations and in response to failures. These rules can be dynamically modified to meet the changing business needs. This dynamic resource allocation within a database grid is unique to Oracle RAC. • Automatic event notification to the mid-tier: When a cluster configuration changes, the midtier can immediately adapt to instance failover or availability of a new instance. This enables end users to continue working in the event of instance failover without the delays typically caused by network timeouts. In the event of new instance availability, the mid-tier can immediately start load balancing connections to that instance. Oracle Database 10g Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) drivers have the “fast connection failover” functionality that can be automatically enabled to handle these events. Oracle WebLogic Application Grid works with any application server - including Oracle WebLogic Server, IBM WebSphere Application Server, and JBoss Application Server - or in a pure grid environment without an application server. Oracle WebLogic Application Grid provides extreme and predictable application scalability and performance. With capacity on demand, Oracle WebLogic Application Grid can linearly scale out middleware infrastructure from a few to thousands of servers. Through its in-memory data grid solution, it provides fast access to frequently used data. Leveraging this grid capability, computation can be done in parallel, further improving application performance. Enterprise Manager Grid Control manages gridwide operations that include managing the entire stack of software, provisioning users, cloning databases, and managing patches. It can monitor the performance of all applications from the point of view of your end users. Grid Control views the performance and availability of the grid infrastructure as a unified whole rather than as isolated storage units, databases, and application servers. You can group hardware nodes, databases, and application servers into single logical entities and manage a group of targets as one unit. Note: In this course, you use Enterprise Manager Database Console to manage one database at a time.

Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance is introduced with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) • Is installed from the clusterware media, separate from the Oracle database software • Contains Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) • Contains Oracle Restart—a high availability solution for nonclustered databases – Can monitor and restart the following components: — — — — — —

Database instances Oracle Net listener Database services ASM instance ASM disk groups Oracle Notification Services (ONS/eONS) for Data Guard Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Grid infrastructure for Single-Instance Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance is introduced with Oracle Database 11g Release 2. It is installed from the clusterware media, separate from the Oracle database software and now includes Oracle Automatic Storage Management and a new feature called Oracle Restart. Oracle Restart is designed to improve the availability of your Oracle Database. It implements a high availability solution for single instance (nonclustered) environments only. For Oracle Real Application Cluster (Oracle RAC) environments, the functionality to automatically restart components is provided by Oracle Clusterware. Oracle Restart can monitor the health and automatically restart the following components: • Database Instances • Oracle Net Listener • Database Services • ASM Instance • ASM Disk Groups • Oracle Notification Services (ONS/eONS) for Data Guard Oracle Restart ensures that the components are started in the proper order, in accordance with component dependencies. If a component must be shut down, it ensures that the dependent components are cleanly shut down first. Oracle Restart runs out of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, which you install separately from Oracle Database homes. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Grid Infrastructure for Single-Instance

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Grid infrastructure for Single-Instance (continued) Some glossary definitions (for your ease of reference): • A database instance is the combination of the system global area (SGA) and background processes. An instance is associated with one and only one database. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration, multiple instances access a single database simultaneously. • An Oracle Net listener is a process that listens for incoming client connection requests and manages network traffic to the database. • A database service is a user-created service that is managed by Oracle Clusterware. A database service may be offered on one or more RAC instances, and managed on per-instance basis (with respect to starting/stopping the service). Only services that are managed by Oracle Clusterware are able to be part of a Performance Class. Services created with the DBMS_SERVICE package are not managed by Oracle Clusterware. • An ASM instance is built on the same technology as an Oracle Database instance. An ASM instance has a System Global Area (SGA) and background processes that are similar to those of Oracle Database. However, because ASM performs fewer tasks than a database, an ASM SGA is much smaller than a database SGA. ASM instances mount disk groups to make ASM files available to database instances; ASM instances do not mount databases. • An ASM disk groups consists of one or more ASM disks, which are managed as a logical unit. I/O to a disk group is automatically spread across all the disks in the group. • An Oracle Notification Services (ONS) is a publish-and-subscribe service for communicating information about all Fast Application Notification (FAN) events.

Course Examples: HR Sample Schema REGIONS

JOBS COUNTRIES COUNTRY_ID (PK) COUNTRY_NAME REGION_ID (FK)

JOB_ID (PK) JOB_TITLE MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY

LOCATIONS

EMPLOYEES

LOCATION_ID (PK) STREET_ADDRESS POSTAL_CODE CITY STATE_PROVINCE COUNTRY_ID (FK)

EMPLOYEE_ID (PK) FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME EMAIL PHONE_NUMBER HIRE_DATE JOB_ID (FK) SALARY COMMISION_PCT MANAGER_ID (FK) DEPARTMENT_ID (FK)

DEPARTMENTS DEPARTMENT_ID (PK) DEPARTMENT_NAME MANAGER_ID LOCATION_ID (FK)

JOB_HISTORY EMPLOYEE_ID (PK) START_DATE (PK) END_DATE JOB_ID (FK) DEPARTMENT_ID (FK)

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Course Examples: HR Sample Schema The examples used in this course are from a human resources (HR) application, which can be created as part of the starter database. The following are some principal business rules of the HR application: • Each department may be the employer of one or more employees. Each employee may be assigned to only one department. • Each job must be a job for one or more employees. Each employee must be currently assigned to only one job. • When an employee changes his or her department or job, a record in the JOB_HISTORY table records the start and end dates of the past assignments. • JOB_HISTORY records are identified by a composite primary key (PK): the EMPLOYEE_ID and the START_DATE columns. Notation: PK = Primary Key, FK = Foreign Key Solid lines represent mandatory foreign key (FK) constraints and dashed lines represent optional FK constraints. The EMPLOYEES table also has an FK constraint with itself. This is an implementation of the business rule: Each employee may be reporting directly to only one manager. The FK is optional because the top employee does not report to another employee. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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REGION_ID (PK) REGION_NAME

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Core Concepts and Tools of the Oracle Database

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Describe the core concepts of the Oracle Database architecture with Automatic Storage Management (ASM) • Use configuration and management DBA tools • Describe the technical course environment

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Objectives This lesson reviews the Oracle Database architecture with ASM and provides an overview of the technical environment for this course. In this way, core concepts and DBA tools are introduced.

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Objectives

Naming the Core Components of an Oracle Database Server

PGA Server process

Memory Structures (System Global Area) Server

Process Structures

Connection

User process

Client

Database (Storage Structures)

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Naming the Core Components of an Oracle Database Server The following are a few sample questions to get you started by naming the core components: 1. The two main components of a basic Oracle Database system: _________________________ and _______________________ 2. The Instance consists of _____________________and _____________________processes. 3. The three major structures in the Oracle Database server architecture are: _______________, _______________, and ____________. 4. A session is a connection between the _______________ and the ______________.

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Instance

Oracle Database Server Architecture Overview

PGA Server process

Memory structures (System Global Area) Server

Process structures

Connection

User process

Session

Client

Database (storage structures)

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Oracle Database Server Architecture There are three major structures in the Oracle Database server architecture: memory structures, process structures, and storage structures. A basic Oracle database system consists of an Oracle database and a database instance. The database consists of both physical structures and logical structures. Because the physical and logical structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting access to logical storage structures. The instance consists of memory structures and background processes associated with that instance. Every time an instance is started, a shared memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) is allocated and the background processes are started. Processes are jobs that work in the memory of computers. A process is defined as a “thread of control” or a mechanism in an operating system that can run a series of steps. After starting a database instance, the Oracle software associates the instance with a specific database. This is called mounting the database. The database is then ready to be opened, which makes it accessible to authorized users. Note: The Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) uses the concept of an instance for the memory and process components, but is not associated with a specific database. Connections and sessions are closely related to user processes but are very different in meaning.

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Instance

A session represents the state of a current user login to the database instance. For example, when a user starts SQL*Plus, the user must provide a valid username and password, and then a session is established for that user. A session lasts from the time a user connects until the user disconnects or exits the database application. Multiple sessions can be created and exist concurrently for a single Oracle database user using the same username. For example, a user with the username/password of HR/HR can connect to the same Oracle Database instance several times.

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Oracle Database Architecture Overview (continued) A connection is a communication pathway between a user process and an Oracle Database instance. A communication pathway is established using available interprocess communication mechanisms (on a computer that runs both the user process and Oracle Database) or network software (when different computers run the database application and Oracle Database, and communicate through a network).

Instance-Database Configurations

I1 I2

I1

I2

I3

D1 D2 Local storage

D Shared storage Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Instance-Database Configurations Each database instance is associated with one and only one database. If there are multiple databases on the same server, there is a separate and distinct database instance for each database. A database instance cannot be shared. A Real Application Clusters (RAC) database usually has multiple instances on separate servers for the same shared database. In this model, the same database is associated with each RAC instance, which preserves the requirement that at most only one database be associated with an instance.

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Clustered system

Nonclustered system

Naming the Memory Structures of an Oracle Database Assign these names:

KEEP buffer pool Recycle buffer pool nK buffer cache

Server process

User Global Area

Shared pool

Redo log Large pool buffer Database buffer cache

Java pool Stack

System Global Area (SGA)

Streams pool

Space

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Naming the Memory Structures of an Oracle Database To get you started: 1. Which are the components of the PGA: ____________ and _______________. 2. Name the main components of the SGA: - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________ - ___________________________

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Program Global Area (PGA)

Oracle Database Memory Structures

Stack

User

Stack

User

Space

Global

Space

Global Area

Area Server process 1

Shared pool

Large pool

Server process 2

Database buffer cache

Java pool

Redo log buffer

Streams pool

KEEP buffer pool Recycle buffer pool nK buffer cache

System Global Area (SGA) Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Oracle Database Memory Structures Oracle Database creates and uses memory structures for various purposes. For example, memory stores program code being run, data that is shared among users, and private data areas for each connected user. Two basic memory structures are associated with an instance: • System Global Area (SGA): Group of shared memory structures, known as SGA components, that contain data and control information for one Oracle Database instance. The SGA is shared by all server and background processes. Examples of data stored in the SGA include cached data blocks and shared SQL areas. • Program Global Areas (PGA): Memory regions that contain data and control information for a server or background process. A PGA is nonshared memory created by Oracle Database when a server or background process is started. Access to the PGA is exclusive to the server process. Each server process and background process has its own PGA.

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PGA

Program Global Area (PGA)

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Oracle Database Memory Structures (continued) The SGA is the memory area that contains data and control information for the instance. The SGA includes the following data structures: • Shared pool: Caches various constructs that can be shared among users • Database buffer cache: Caches blocks of data retrieved from the database • KEEP buffer pool: A specialized type of database buffer cache that is tuned to retain blocks of data in memory for long periods of time • Recycle buffer pool: A specialized type of database buffer cache that is tuned to recycle or remove block from memory quickly • nK buffer cache: One of several specialized database buffer caches designed to hold block sizes different than the default database block size • Redo log buffer: Caches redo information (used for instance recovery) until it can be written to the physical redo log files stored on the disk • Large pool: Optional area that provides large memory allocations for certain large processes, such as Oracle backup and recovery operations, and I/O server processes • Java pool: Used for all session-specific Java code and data in the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) • Streams pool: Used by Oracle Streams to store information required by capture and apply When you start the instance by using Enterprise Manager or SQL*Plus, the amount of memory allocated for the SGA is displayed. A Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory region that contains data and control information for each server process. An Oracle server process services a client’s requests. Each server process has its own private PGA that is allocated when the server process is started. Access to the PGA is exclusive to that server process, and the PGA is read and written only by the Oracle code acting on its behalf. The PGA is divided into two major areas: stack space and the user global area (UGA). With the dynamic SGA infrastructure, the sizes of the database buffer cache, the shared pool, the large pool, the Java pool, and the Streams pool can change without shutting down the instance. The Oracle database uses initialization parameters to create and manage memory structures. The simplest way to manage memory is to allow the database to automatically manage and tune it for you. To do so (on most platforms), you only have to set a target memory size initialization parameter (MEMORY_TARGET) and a maximum memory size initialization parameter (MEMORY_MAX_TARGET).

Process Architecture User process – Is the application or tool that connects to the Oracle Database



Database processes – Server process: Connects to the Oracle instance and is started when a user establishes a session – Background processes: Are started when an Oracle instance is started



Daemon/Application processes – Networking listeners – Grid Infrastructure daemons

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Process Architecture The processes in an Oracle Database system can be divided into three major groups: • User processes that run the application or Oracle tool code • Oracle Database processes that run the Oracle database server code (including server processes and background processes) • Oracle daemons and application processes not specific to a single database When a user runs an application program or an Oracle tool such as SQL*Plus, the term user process is used to refer to the user’s application. The user process may or may not be on the database server machine. Oracle Database also creates a server process to execute the commands issued by the user process. In addition, the Oracle server also has a set of background processes for an instance that interact with each other and with the operating system to manage the memory structures, asynchronously perform I/O to write data to disk, and perform other required tasks. The process structure varies for different Oracle Database configurations, depending on the operating system and the choice of Oracle Database options. The code for connected users can be configured as a dedicated server or a shared server. • Dedicated server: For each session, the database application is run by a user process that is served by a dedicated server process that executes Oracle database server code. • Shared server: Eliminates the need for a dedicated server process for each connection. A dispatcher directs multiple incoming network session requests to a pool of shared server processes. A shared server process serves any client request.

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Process Structures

System Global Area (SGA) PGA Server process

Background processes Required:

DBWn

CKPT

LGWR

SMON

Optional:

ARCn

ASMB

RBAL

Others

PMON

RECO

Listener

Grid Infrastructure Processes (ASM and Oracle Restart) User process

ohasd

ocssd

diskmon

orarootagent

oraagent

cssdagent

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Process Structures Server Processes Oracle Database creates server processes to handle the requests of user processes connected to the instance. The user process represents the application or tool that connects to the Oracle database. It may be on the same machine as the Oracle database or it may exist on a remote client and utilize a network to reach the Oracle database. The user process first communicates with a listener process that creates a server process in a dedicated environment. Server processes created on behalf of each user’s application can perform one or more of the following: • Parse and run SQL statements issued through the application • Read necessary data blocks from data files on disk into the shared database buffers of the SGA (if the blocks are not already present in the SGA) • Return results in such a way that the application can process the information Background Processes To maximize performance and accommodate many users, a multiprocess Oracle Database system uses some additional Oracle Database processes called background processes. An Oracle Database instance can have many background processes.

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Instances (ASM and Database separate)

Some background processes are created automatically when an instance is started, whereas others are started as required. Other process structures are not specific to a single database, but rather can be shared among many databases on the same server. The Grid Infrastructure and networking processes fall into this category. Oracle Grid Infrastructure processes on Linux and Unix systems include the following: • ohasd: Oracle High Availability Service daemon that is responsible to starting Oracle Clusterware processes • ocssd: Cluster Synchronization Service daemon • diskmon: Disk Monitor daemon that is responsible for input and output fencing for HP Oracle Exadata Storage Server. • cssdagent: Starts, stops and check the status of the CSS daemon, ocssd. • oraagent: Extend clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources • orarootagent: A specialized Oracle agent process that that helps manage resources owned by root, such as the network.

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Process Structures (continued) The background processes commonly seen in non-RAC, non-ASM environments can include the following: • Database writer process (DBWn) • Log writer process (LGWR) • Checkpoint process (CKPT) • System monitor process (SMON) • Process monitor process (PMON) • Recoverer process (RECO) • Job queue coordinator (CJQ0) • Job slave processes (Jnnn) • Archiver processes (ARCn) • Queue monitor processes (QMNn) Other background processes may be found in more advanced configurations such as RAC. See the V$BGPROCESS view for more information on the background processes.

1. The ______process writes the dirty buffers to the data files. 2. The ______process writes the redo entries to the online redo log files. 3. The ______process writes checkpoint information in the control file and each data file header. 4. The ______process performs recovery on instance startup. 5. The ______process performs process recovery when a user process fails. 6. The ______process resolves in-doubt distributed transactions. 7. The ______processes copy redo log files to a designated storage device.

A. Checkpoint process (CKPT) B. System monitor process (SMON) C. Recoverer process (RECO) D. Log writer process (LGWR) E. Archiver processes (ARCn) F. Process monitor process (PMON) G. Database writer process (DBWn)

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Adding Process Names After you fill in the process names, see “Appendix A Solutions” for possible answers.

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Adding Process Names

Process Startup Sequence Oracle Grid Infrastructure is started by the OS init daemon.

Operating System Grid Infrastructure Grid Infrastructure Init Daemon Wrapper Script Daemons and Processes init



init.ohasd (root)

ohasd.bin oraagent.bin orarootagent.bin diskmon.bin cssdagent ocssd.bin

ASM instance Listener DB instance User-defined applications

Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation modifies the /etc/inittab file to ensure startup every time the machine is started in the corresponding run level. # cat /etc/inittab .. h1:35:respawn:/etc/init.d/init.ohasd run >/dev/null 2>&1 SPOOL LOG TO '/home/oracle/labs/my_lab_output.txt';

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Practice 4 Overview: Configuring Backup Specifications

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Creating Backups with RMAN

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Create image file backups • Create a whole database backup • Create a full database backup • Enable fast incremental backup • Create duplex backup sets • Back up a backup set • Create RMAN multi-section backup • Create an archival backup for long-term retention • Report on and maintain backups

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Objectives

RMAN> BACKUP AS BACKUPSET 2> FORMAT '/BACKUP/df_%d_%s_%p.bus' 3> TABLESPACE hr_data; Data file 1

Data file 1

Data file 2

Data file 2

Data file 3

Data file 3

Tablespace HR_DATA

Backup set

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Creating Backup Sets RMAN can store its backups in an RMAN-exclusive format called a backup set. A backup set is a collection of files called backup pieces, each of which may contain a backup of one or more database files. Note: The FORMAT parameter specifies a pattern to use in creating a file name for the backup pieces created by this command. The FORMAT specification can also be provided through the ALLOCATE CHANNEL and CONFIGURE commands.

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Creating Backup Sets

RMAN> BACKUP AS COPY DATAFILE '/ORADATA/users_01_db01.dbf'; RMAN> BACKUP AS COPY ARCHIVELOG LIKE '/arch%';

Copy of data file 3 Data file 3

Data file 3

Copy of archived log Archived log file

Archived log file Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Creating Image Copies An image copy is a clone of a single data file, archived redo log, or control file. An image copy can be created with the BACKUP AS COPY command or with an operating system command. When you create the image copy with the RMAN BACKUP AS COPY command, the server session validates the blocks in the file and records the copy information in the control file. An image copy has the following characteristics: • An image copy can be written only to disk. When large files are being considered, copying may take a long time, but restoration time is reduced considerably because the copy is available on the disk. • If files are stored on disk, they can be used immediately by using the SWITCH command in RMAN, which is equivalent to the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE SQL statement. • In an image copy, all blocks are copied, whether they contain data or not, because an Oracle database process copies the file and performs additional actions such as checking for corrupt blocks and registering the copy in the control file. To speed up the process of copying, you can use the NOCHECKSUM parameter. By default, RMAN computes a checksum for each block backed up, and stores it with the backup. When the backup is restored, the checksum is verified. For more information about the NOCHECKSUM option of the BACKUP command, see the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Creating Image Copies

Creating Image Copies (continued) • An image copy can be part of a full or incremental level 0 backup because a file copy always includes all blocks. You must use the level 0 option if the copy will be used in conjunction with an incremental backup set.

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The example in the slide creates the following image copies: • A copy of the /ORADATA/users01_db01.dbf data file • A copy of the archived redo log files

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RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;

Archived log file copies

Data file copies

Control file

SPFILE

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Creating a Whole Database Backup A whole database backup can be either backup sets or image copies of the entire set of data files and must include the control file. You can optionally include the server parameter file (SPFILE) and archived redo log files. Using Recovery Manager (RMAN) to make an image copy of all the database files simply requires mounting or opening the database, starting RMAN, and entering the BACKUP command shown in the slide. Optionally, you can supply the DELETE INPUT option when backing up archivelog files. That causes RMAN to remove the archivelog files after backing them up. This is useful especially if you are not using a Fast Recovery Area, which would perform space management for you, deleting files when space pressure grows. In that case, the command in the slide would look like this: RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG DELETE INPUT;

You must have issued the following CONFIGURE commands to make the backup as described previously: • CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO disk; • CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO COPY; • CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON; You can also create a backup (either a backup set or image copies) of previous image copies of all data files and control files in the database by using the following command: RMAN> BACKUP COPY OF DATABASE; THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Creating a Whole Database Backup

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Creating a Whole Database Backup (continued) By default, RMAN executes each BACKUP command serially. However, you can parallelize the copy operation by: • Using the CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM n command, where n is the desired degree of parallelism • Allocating multiple channels • Specifying one BACKUP AS COPY command and listing multiple files

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Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop II 5 - 7

RMAN Backup Types







A full backup contains all used data file blocks. A level 0 incremental backup is equivalent to a full backup that has been marked as level 0. A cumulative level 1 incremental backup contains only blocks modified since the last level 0 incremental backup. A differential level 1 incremental backup contains only blocks modified since the last incremental backup.

Full, or "level 0 incremental backup"

Cumulative incremental backup

Differential incremental backup

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RMAN Backup Types Full Backups A full backup is different from a whole database backup. A full data file backup is a backup that includes every used data block in the file. RMAN copies all blocks into the backup set or image copy, skipping only those data file blocks that have never been used. For a full image copy, the entire file contents are reproduced exactly. A full backup cannot be part of an incremental backup strategy; it cannot be the parent for a subsequent incremental backup. Incremental Backups An incremental backup is either a level 0 backup, which includes every block in the data files except blocks that have never been used, or a level 1 backup, which includes only those blocks that have been changed since a previous backup was taken. A level 0 incremental backup is physically identical to a full backup. The only difference is that the level 0 backup (as well as an image copy) can be used as the base for a level 1 backup, but a full backup can never be used as the base for a level 1 backup. Incremental backups are specified using the INCREMENTAL keyword of the BACKUP command. You specify INCREMENTAL LEVEL [0 | 1].

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RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 DATABASE;

• To perform a differential incremental backup, use the following command: RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 DATABASE;

• To perform a cumulative incremental backup, use the following command: RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE DATABASE;

RMAN makes full backups by default if neither FULL nor INCREMENTAL is specified. Unused block compression causes never-written blocks to be skipped when backing up data files to backup sets, even for full backups. A full backup has no effect on subsequent incremental backups, and is not considered part of any incremental backup strategy, although a full image copy backup can be incrementally updated by applying incremental backups with the RECOVER command. This is covered in the lesson titled “Using RMAN to Perform Recovery.” Note: It is possible to perform any type of backup (full or incremental) of a database that is in NOARCHIVELOG mode—if, of course, the database is not open. Note also that recovery is limited to the time of the last backup. The database can be recovered to the last committed transaction only when the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode.

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RMAN Backup Types (continued) RMAN can create multilevel incremental backups as follows: • Differential: Is the default type of incremental backup that backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup at either level 1 or level 0 • Cumulative: Backs up all blocks changed after the most recent backup at level 0 Examples • To perform an incremental backup at level 0, use the following command:

Implemented by block change tracking, which: • Maintains a record of what blocks have changed since the last backup • Writes this record to a file, as redo is generated • Is automatically accessed when a backup is done, making the backup run faster

List of changed blocks

CTWR

SGA

Redo generation

1011001010110 0001110100101 1010101110011

Change tracking file Redo log

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Fast Incremental Backup The goal of an incremental backup is to back up only those data blocks that have changed since a previous backup. You can use RMAN to create incremental backups of data files, tablespaces, or the whole database. When making an incremental backup, RMAN reads only those blocks referenced to locate the changed blocks since the last backup. That makes the backup smaller because only changed blocks are backed up. It also makes recovery faster because fewer blocks need to be restored. You can perform fast incremental backup by enabling block change tracking. Block change tracking writes to a file the physical address of each block that is changed. When it is time to perform the incremental backup, RMAN can look at the block change tracking file, and back up only those blocks referenced there; it does not have to scan every block to see if it has changed since the last backup. This makes the incremental backup faster. The maintenance of the tracking file is fully automatic and does not require your intervention. The size of the block change tracking file is proportional to the: • Database size, in bytes • Number of enabled threads in a RAC environment • Number of old backups maintained by the block change tracking file The minimum size for the block change tracking file is 10 MB, and any new space is allocated in 10 MB increments. The Oracle database does not record block change information by default. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Fast Incremental Backup

ALTER DATABASE {ENABLE|DISABLE} BLOCK CHANGE TRACKING [USING FILE '...']

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Enabling Fast Incremental Backup You enable block change tracking from the Database Control home page. Navigate to Availability > Backup Settings > Policy. You do not need to set the block change tracking file destination if the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialization parameter is set because the file is created as an Oracle Managed File (OMF) file in the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST location. You can, however, specify the name of the block change tracking file, placing it in any location you choose. You can also enable or disable this feature by using an ALTER DATABASE command. If the change tracking file is stored in the database area with your database files, then it is deleted when you disable change tracking. You can rename the block change tracking file by using the ALTER DATABASE RENAME command. Your database must be in the MOUNT state to rename the tracking file. The ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command updates the control file to refer to the new location. You can use the following syntax to change the location of the block change tracking file: ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '...' TO '...';

Note: RMAN does not support backup and recovery of the block change tracking file. For this reason, you should not place it in the Fast Recovery Area.

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Enabling Fast Incremental Backup

SQL> SELECT filename, status, bytes 2 FROM v$block_change_tracking; SQL> 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8

SELECT file#, avg(datafile_blocks), avg(blocks_read), avg(blocks_read/datafile_blocks) * 100 AS PCT_READ_FOR_BACKUP, avg(blocks) FROM v$backup_datafile WHERE used_change_tracking = 'YES' AND incremental_level > 0 GROUP BY file#; Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Monitoring Block Change Tracking The output of the V$BLOCK_CHANGE_TRACKING view shows where the block change tracking file is located, the status of block change tracking (ENABLED/DISABLED), and the size (in bytes) of the file. The query on the V$BACKUP_DATAFILE view shows how effective the block change tracking is in minimizing the incremental backup I/O (the PCT_READ_FOR_BACKUP column). A high value indicates that RMAN reads most blocks in the data file during an incremental backup. You can reduce this ratio by decreasing the time between the incremental backups. A sample formatted output from the V$BACKUP_DATAFILE query is shown below: FILE# ----1 2 3 4

BLOCKS_IN_FILE -------------56320 3840 49920 640

5

19200

BLOCKS_READ PCT_READ_FOR_BACKUP BLOCKS_BACKED_UP ----------- ------------------- ---------------4480 7 462 2688 70 2408 16768 33 4457 64 10 1 256

1

91

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Monitoring Block Change Tracking

Performing Proxy Copies Server session (channel)

Media Management Library

Media management server software

Storage Area Network (SAN)

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Performing Proxy Copies Use the PROXY option of the RMAN BACKUP command to request a MML to perform the copy of the files. Syntax: BACKUP [AS BACKUPSET] … PROXY [ONLY] DATABASE|TABLESPACE.... The PROXY ONLY option is useful for those media managers and storage networks where having the backup done by proxy may substantially reduce the storage net traffic. Some media management products can completely manage all data movement between Oracle data files and the backup devices. Some products that use high-speed connections between storage and media subsystems can reduce much of the backup load from the primary database server. This is beneficial in that the copying takes place across the SAN instead of the LAN. At that point, RMAN is no longer involved in the operation, except for communicating status across the LAN to and from the MML.

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Recovery Manager

RMAN> BACKUP AS BACKUPSET DEVICE TYPE sbt 2> COPIES 2 3> INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 4> DATABASE;

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Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using BACKUP COPIES You can use the BACKUP command with the COPIES option to override other COPIES or DUPLEX settings to create duplexed backup sets. To duplex a backup with BACKUP COPIES, perform the following steps: 1. Specify the number of identical copies with the COPIES option of the BACKUP command. 2. Issue a LIST BACKUP command to verify your backup.

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Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using BACKUP COPIES

RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK AS BACKUPSET 2> DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG; RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt BACKUPSET ALL; Data file 1 Data file 2 Data file 3 Archived redo logs

Data file 1 Data file 2 Data file 3 Archived redo logs

Backup sets

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Creating Backups of Backup Sets Use the RMAN BACKUP BACKUPSET command to back up previously created backup sets. Only backup sets that were created on device type DISK can be backed up using RMAN. The backup sets can be backed up to any available device type. The BACKUP BACKUPSET command uses the default disk channel to copy backup sets from disk to disk. To back up from disk to tape, you must either configure or manually allocate a nondisk channel.

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Creating Backups of Backup Sets

Considerations for backing up read-only tablespaces: • Backup optimization causes RMAN to back up read-only tablespaces only when there does not exist a backup that satisfies the retention policy. • If you change the tablespace to read/write, back it up immediately. • You can use the SKIP READONLY option of the RMAN BACKUP command to skip read-only tablespaces or data files.

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Backing Up Read-Only Tablespaces Because read-only tablespaces are not being written to, there is no need to continually back them up as you do read/write tablespaces. You can use the SKIP READONLY option of the BACKUP command to let RMAN know to not back up read-only tablespaces.

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Backing Up Read-Only Tablespaces

Multisection backups of a single file: • Are created by RMAN, with your specified size value • Are processed independently (serially or in parallel) • Produce multipiece backup sets • Improve performance of the backup Channel 1

Section 1

Channel 2

Section 2

Channel 3

Section 3

Channel 4

Section 4 One large data file

Multipiece backup set

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Configuring Backup and Restore for Very Large Files Oracle data files can be up to 128 TB in size. Normally, the smallest unit of an RMAN backup is an entire file. This is not practical with such large files. RMAN can optionally break up large files into sections and back up and restore these sections independently. You do this by creating multisection backups, which break up the files generated for the backup set into separate files. This can be done only with backup sets, not image copies. Each file section is a contiguous range of blocks of a file. Each file section can be processed independently, either serially or in parallel. Backing up a file into separate sections can improve the performance of the backup operation, and it also allows large file backups to be restarted. A multisection backup job produces a multipiece backup set. Each piece contains one section of the file. All sections of a multisection backup, except perhaps for the last section, are of the same size. There are a maximum of 256 sections per file. Note: You should not apply large values of parallelism to back up a large file that resides on a small number of disks, as that would defeat the purpose of the parallel operation; multiple simultaneous accesses to the same disk device would be competing with each other. This feature is built into RMAN. No installation is required beyond the normal installation of Oracle Database 11g. COMPATIBLE must be set to at least 11.0, because earlier releases cannot restore multisection backups. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Configuring Backup and Restore for Very Large Files

Creating RMAN Multisection Backups

BACKUP SECTION SIZE [K | M | G] VALIDATE DATAFILE SECTION SIZE [K | M | G]

Example: RMAN> BACKUP DATAFILE 5 SECTION SIZE = 25M TAG 'section25mb'; backing up blocks 1 through 3200 piece handle=/u01/.../o1_mf_nnndf_SECTION25MB_382dryt4_.bkp tag=SECTION25MB comment=NONE ... backing up blocks 9601 through 12800 piece handle=/u01/.../o1_mf_nnndf_SECTION25MB_382dsto8_.bkp tag=SECTION25MB comment=NONE

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Creating RMAN Multisection Backups The BACKUP and VALIDATE DATAFILE commands accept the following option: SECTION SIZE [K | M | G] Use this to specify your planned size for each backup section. The option is both a backup command– and backup spec–level option, so that you can apply different section sizes to different files in the same backup job. In the example in the slide, a backup of data file 5 is being taken, and the section size is specified as 25 MB. The data file is 100 MB in size, so four sections are created. Note that, as indicated by the block ranges, block contiguity is maintained as they are written to the section files. Viewing Metadata About Your Multisection Backup • The V$BACKUP_SET and RC_BACKUP_SET views have a MULTI_SECTION column, which indicates whether this is a multisection backup or not. • The V$BACKUP_DATAFILE and RC_BACKUP_DATAFILE views have a SECTION_SIZE column, which specifies the number of blocks in each section of a multisection backup. Zero means a whole-file backup.

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RMAN command syntax:

Archival Backups: Concepts

Backup A

Log 250

Log 900 Backup S

Backup B

Now

End of Q1

Log nnn

Recovery window of 7 days

and

Backup

Not needed for retention policy

Backup

Needed for retention policy

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Archival Backups: Concepts If you need to preserve an online backup for a specified amount of time, RMAN normally assumes you might want to perform point-in-time recovery for any time since that backup to the present. To satisfy this scenario, RMAN keeps the archived logs for that time period. However, you may have a requirement to simply keep the specific backup (and what is necessary to keep it consistent and recoverable) for a specified amount of time—for example, for two years. You do not have the intention of recovering to a point in time since that backup, but you just want to be able to recover to the exact time of the backup, and no later. You also want to maintain a retention policy that keeps your backup area free of clutter, so making it reach back two years is not acceptable. This is a common need, when meeting business or legal requirements for data retention. An archival backup solves this problem. If you mark a backup as an archival backup, that attribute overrides any configured retention policy for the purpose of this backup. You can retain archival backups such that they are either considered obsolete only after a specific time that you specify, or never considered obsolete. If you want to specify the latter, you need to use a recovery catalog. The KEEP clause creates an archival backup that is a snapshot of the database at a point in time. The only redo logs that are kept are those required to restore this backup to a consistent state. The RESTORE POINT clause issued after the backup is completed determines the number of redo logs that are kept (enough to restore the backup to the RESTORE POINT time). THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Archival backup

This backup is a snapshot of the database at a point in time, and can be used to restore the database to another host for testing purposes, for example. Note: Archival backups cannot be written to the Fast Recovery Area. So if you have one, you must provide a FORMAT clause to specify a different location.

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Archival Backups: Concepts (continued) An archival backup also guarantees that all of the files needed to restore the backup are included. RMAN includes the data files, SPFILE, archived log files (only those needed to recover an online backup), and the relevant autobackup files. All these files must go to the same media family (or group of tapes). You can also specify a restore point to be created, which has the same SCN as the archival backup. That essentially gives a meaningful name to the point of time the backup was made. After an archival backup is created, it is retained for as long as specified. Even if you have a much smaller retention window and run the DELETE OBSOLETE command, the archival backup remains.

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Creating Archival Backups with EM To create an archival backup using Enterprise Manager, perform the following steps: 1. Select Availability > Schedule Backup > Schedule Customized Backup. 2. Follow the steps of the Schedule Customized Backup wizard until you are on the Settings page. 3. Click Override Current Settings and then the Policy tab. In the Override Retention Policy section, you can select to keep a backup for a specified number of days. A restore point is generated based on the backup job name. You probably also want to specify a different destination for the backup files; to do this, use the Device tab. Backups created with the KEEP option include the SPFILE, control files, and archive redo log files required to restore this backup, and data files. This backup is a snapshot of the database at a point in time, and can be used to restore the database to another host.

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Creating Archival Backups with EM

Creating Archival Backups with RMAN Specifying the KEEP clause when the database is online includes both data file and archive log backup sets: KEEP {FOREVER | UNTIL TIME [=] ' date_string '} NOKEEP [RESTORE POINT rsname]



List all restore points known to the RMAN repository: LIST RESTORE POINT ALL;



Display a specific restore point: LIST RESTORE POINT 'rsname';

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Creating Archival Backups with RMAN Use the following syntax to create an archival backup using RMAN: BACKUP ... KEEP {FOREVER|UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE + '} RESTORE POINT

The UNTIL TIME clause enables you to specify when the archival backup is no longer immune to the retention policy. You can optionally specify FOREVER, meaning that the backup is an archival backup until you take some other action to change that. Optionally, use the RESTORE POINT clause to specify the name of a restore point to be associated with this backup. The RESTORE POINT clause creates a “consistency” point in the control file. It assigns a name to a specific SCN. The SCN is captured just after the data file backup completes. The archival backup can be restored and recovered for this point in time, enabling the database to be opened. In contrast, the UNTIL TIME clause specifies the date until which the backup must be kept.

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Managing Archival Database Backups

Archiving a database backup:

RMAN> CONNECT TARGET / RMAN> CONNECT CATALOG rman/[email protected] RMAN> CHANGE BACKUP TAG 'consistent_db_bkup' 2> KEEP FOREVER;

2

Changing the status of a database copy:

RMAN> CHANGE COPY OF DATABASE CONTROLFILE NOKEEP;

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Managing Archival Database Backups The CHANGE command changes the exemption status of a backup or copy in relation to the configured retention policy. For example, you can specify CHANGE ... NOKEEP, to make a backup that is currently exempt from the retention policy eligible for the OBSOLETE status. The first example changes a consistent backup into an archival backup, which you plan to store offsite. Because the database is consistent and, therefore, requires no recovery, you do not need to save archived redo logs with the backup. The second example specifies that any long-term image copies of data files and control files should lose their exempt status and so become eligible to be obsolete according to the existing retention policy. This statement essentially removes the archival attribute from those backup files. If you do not specify a tag, as in this case, then the CHANGE execution applies to all backups of the type specified. You should specify a tag to change only the backup files you intend to change. Note: The RESTORE POINT option is not valid with the CHANGE command, because there is no way to create the restore point for a time that has already passed (when the backup was created).

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1

Backing Up Recovery Files Back up only the files in the Fast Recovery Area:

RMAN> BACKUP RECOVERY AREA



Back up all recovery files:

RMAN> BACKUP RECOVERY FILES

Fast Recovery Area

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Backing Up Recovery Files There are two ways to back up recovery data. The BACKUP RECOVERY AREA command backs up all files that are found in the current and any previous Fast Recovery Areas. The BACKUP RECOVERY FILES command backs up all recovery files, even if they are not in the FRA. You gain added protection from loss by using the latter, which would back up, for example, any copies of control files or data files that are not in the Fast Recovery Area. By default, backup optimization is in effect for these two commands, even if you have disabled it using the CONFIGURE command. This means that the only recovery files that this command backs up are those that are not already backed up. You can force all files to be backed up by using the FORCE option. You cannot specify DEVICE TYPE DISK for either of these commands. Note: RMAN backs up only database files: data files, control files, SPFILES, archive log files, and backups of these files. Placing an operating system file in the Fast Recovery Area causes it to be included with a backup of the recovery area.

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Use the following RMAN commands to obtain information about your backups: • LIST: Displays information about backup sets, proxy copies, and image copies recorded in the repository • REPORT: Produces a detailed analysis of the repository • REPORT NEED BACKUP: Lists all data files that require a backup • REPORT OBSOLETE: Identifies files that are no longer needed to satisfy backup retention policies

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Managing Backups: Reporting Use the RMAN LIST command to display information about backup sets, proxy copies, and image copies recorded in the repository. Use this command to list: • Backups and copies that do not have the AVAILABLE status in the RMAN repository • Backups and copies of data files that are available and can possibly be used in a restore operation • Backup sets and copies that contain a backup of a specified list of data files or specified tablespaces • Backup sets and copies that contain a backup of any archived logs with a specified name or range • Backup sets and copies restricted by tag, completion time, recoverability, or device • Incarnations of a specified database or of all databases known to the repository • Stored scripts in the recovery catalog Use the RMAN REPORT command to analyze information in the RMAN repository in more detail. The REPORT NEED BACKUP command is used to identify all data files that need a backup. The report assumes that the most recent backup would be used in the event of a restore.

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Managing Backups: Reporting

Managing Backups: Reporting (continued) Using the REPORT OBSOLETE command, you can identify files that are no longer needed to satisfy backup retention policies. By default, the REPORT OBSOLETE command reports which files are obsolete under the currently configured retention policy. You can generate reports of files that are obsolete according to different retention policies by using REDUNDANCY or RECOVERY WINDOW retention policy options with the REPORT OBSOLETE command.

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Refer to the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for detailed syntax information.

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Query the following dynamic performance views in the target database to obtain information about your backups: • V$BACKUP_SET: Backup sets created • V$BACKUP_PIECE: Backup pieces that exist • V$DATAFILE_COPY: Copies of data files on disk • V$BACKUP_FILES: Information about all files created when creating backups

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Managing Backups: Dynamic Performance Views There are many views that provide backup-related information. The most commonly used ones are shown in the slide. If you are using a recovery catalog, you can query corresponding views that contain the same information for each target database registered in the recovery catalog database. The corresponding views have the same name, except that the “V$” is replaced with “RC_”. Also, they are in the schema owned by the recovery catalog owner. For example, the corresponding views in the recovery catalog, showing the information shown in the slide are: RC_BACKUP_SET, RC_BACKUP_PIECE, RC_DATAFILE_COPY, and RC_BACKUP_FILES. In order to query the RC_BACKUP_FILES view, you must first execute the following in the recovery catalog database: SQL> CALL DBMS_RCVMAN.SETDATABASE(null,null,null,);

where is the database ID of a target database.

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Managing Backups: Dynamic Performance Views

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Using Enterprise Manager to View Backup Reports You can use the Backup Report page to display lists of backup jobs that are known to the database through the information recorded about them in the database control file. You can customize the jobs that appear in the Results table by using the Search fields at the top of the page. The Results table lists basic information about each backup job, such as the Start Time, the Time Taken, and the Status of the backup job. You can also use the Results table to drill down to individual, detailed backup job reports by using the link in the Backup Name column. You can drill down to a Summary of Job page of the backup job by clicking the Status of the job in the Results table, where you can view the contents of the output log. Click the Backup Name link, and you can use the Backup Report page to display detailed information about that backup. The information displayed on this page is derived from the information recorded in the database control file. The Backup Report page displays result information in the Result section in various categories, such as Input Summary, containing rollup information about the files that were backed up; Output Summary, containing rollup information about the Backup Sets and Image Copies; and then Inputs and Outputs sections that display tables containing detailed job information about the data files, control files, backup sets, backup pieces, and image copies.

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Using Enterprise Manager to View Backup Reports

Use the following RMAN commands to manage your backups: • CROSSCHECK: Verifies the status of backups and copies recorded in the RMAN repository against media such as disk or tape • DELETE EXPIRED: Removes only files whose status in the repository is EXPIRED • DELETE OBSOLETE: Deletes backups that are no longer needed

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Managing Backups: Cross-Checking and Deleting Use the CROSSCHECK command to ensure that data about backups in the recovery catalog or control file is synchronized with actual files on disk or in the media management catalog. The CROSSCHECK command operates only on files that are recorded in the RMAN repository. The CROSSCHECK command checks only objects marked AVAILABLE or EXPIRED by examining the files on disk for DISK channels or by querying the media manager for sbt channels. The CROSSCHECK command updates the repository records for any files that it is unable to find to EXPIRED. It does not delete any files that it is unable to find. The DELETE command can remove any file that the LIST and CROSSCHECK commands can operate on. For example, you can delete backup sets, archived redo logs, and data file copies. The DELETE command removes both the physical file and the catalog record for the file. The DELETE OBSOLETE command deletes backups that are no longer needed. It uses the same REDUNDANCY and RECOVERY WINDOW options as REPORT OBSOLETE. If you delete backups without using RMAN, you can use the UNCATALOG command to remove the files from the recovery catalog, or you can use the CROSSCHECK and DELETE EXPIRED commands. Refer to the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for detailed syntax information.

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Managing Backups: Cross-Checking and Deleting

A full database backup can be used as the basis for incremental backups. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 2

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Quiz

RMAN can always take a backup when the database is closed. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 1

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Quiz

In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Create image file backups • Create a whole database backup • Create a full database backup • Enable fast incremental backup • Create duplex backup sets • Back up a backup set • Create RMAN multi-section backup • Create an archival backup for long-term retention • Report on and maintain backups

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Summary

This practice covers the following topics: • Taking an archival backup • Enabling block change tracking • Recovering from a damaged block • Reporting on existing backups • Backing up the control file

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Practice 5 Overview: Creating Backups

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Restore and Recovery Tasks

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Describe the causes of file loss and determine the appropriate action • Describe major recovery operations • Back up and recover a control file • Recover from a lost redo log group

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Objectives

Restore

Redo log

Recover

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Restoring and Recovering The “recovery” portion of backup and recovery tasks includes two major types of activities: restoring and recovering. Restoring a file is the process of copying a backup into place to be used by the database. This is necessary if, for example, a file is damaged because the physical disk it is on fails. This is usually due to hardware problems, such as disk write errors, or controller failure. In that case, a backup of the file needs to be copied onto a new (or repaired) disk. Recovering the file entails applying redo such that the state of the file is brought forward in time, to whatever point you want. That point is usually as close to the time of failure as possible. In the database industry, these two operations are often referred to, collectively, with the single term “recovery.”

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Restoring and Recovering

File loss can be caused by: • User error • Application error • Media failure

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Causes of File Loss Files can be lost or damaged due to: • User error: An administrator may inadvertently delete or copy over a necessary operating system file. • Application error: An application or script can also have a logic error in it, as it processes database files, resulting in a lost or damaged file. • Media failure: A disk drive or controller may fail fully or partially, and introduce corruption into files, or even cause a total loss of files.

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Causes of File Loss

Critical Versus Noncritical

You fix the problem by taking one of these actions: • Create a new file. • Rebuild the file. • Recover the lost or damaged file.

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Critical Versus Noncritical A noncritical file is one that the database and most applications can operate without. For example, if the database loses one multiplexed redo log file, there are still other redo log file copies that can be used to keep the database operating. Although the loss of a noncritical file does not cause the database to crash, it can impair the functioning of the database. For example: • The loss of an index tablespace can cause applications and queries to run much slower, or even make the application unusable, if the indexes were used to enforce constraints. • The loss of an online redo log group, as long as it is not the current online log group, can cause database operations to be suspended (when LGWR next tries to write to the group) until new log files are generated. • The loss of a temporary tablespace can prevent users from running queries or creating indexes until they have been assigned to a new temporary tablespace.

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A noncritical file loss is one where the database can continue to function.

Automatic Tempfile Recovery

SQL> select * from big_table order by 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13; select * from big_table order by 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01565: error in identifying file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf' ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory

Good news: • Automatic re-creation of temporary files at startup • (Manual re-creation also possible) Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Automatic Tempfile Recovery If a temporary file (tempfile) belonging to the temporary tablespace is lost or damaged, the extents in that file will not be available. This problem may manifest itself as an error during the execution of SQL statements that require temporary space for sorting. The SQL statement shown in the slide has a long list of columns to order by, which results in the need for temporary space. The missing file error is encountered when this statement requiring a sort is executed. The Oracle database instance can start up with a missing temporary file. If any of the temporary files do not exist when the database instance is started, they are created automatically and the database opens normally. When this happens, a message like the following appears in the alert log during startup: Re-creating tempfile /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf

In the unlikely case that you decide a manual recreation serves you better, use the following commands: SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE temp ADD TEMPFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp02.dbf' SIZE 20M; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE temp DROP TEMPFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf'; THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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SQL statements that require temporary space to execute may fail if one of the tempfiles is missing.

A redo log group has a status of one of the following values at any given time: • CURRENT: The LGWR process is currently writing redo data to it. • ACTIVE: It is no longer being written to, but it is still required for instance recovery. • INACTIVE: It is no longer being written to, and it is no longer required for instance recovery.

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Log Group Status: Review To deal with the loss of redo log files, it is important to understand the possible states of redo log groups. Redo log groups cycle through three different states as part of the normal running of the Oracle database. They are, in order of the cycle: • CURRENT: This state means that the redo log group is being written to by LGWR to record redo data for any transactions going on in the database. The log group remains in this state until there is a switch to another log group. • ACTIVE: The redo log group still contains redo data that is required for instance recovery. This is the status during the time when a checkpoint has not yet executed that would write out to the data files all data changes that are represented in the redo log group. • INACTIVE: The checkpoint discussed above has indeed executed, meaning that the redo log group is no longer needed for instance recovery, and is free to become the next CURRENT log group.

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Log Group Status: Review

Recovering from the Loss of a Redo Log Group

Yes

Fix media?

Done

Inactive

Active

No Clear log file. Back up database.

No

Archived? Yes Clear log file.

Current

Group status

Perform checkpoint.

Yes

Perform No log switch

CKPT successful?

Instance crashed?

Yes

No Restore and perform cancel-based point-in-time recovery.

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Recovering from the Loss of a Redo Log Group If you have lost an entire redo log group, then all copies of the log files for that group are unusable or gone. The simplest case is where the redo log group is in the INACTIVE state. That means it is not currently being written to, and it is no longer needed for instance recovery. If the problem is temporary, or you are able to fix the media, then the database continues to run normally, and the group is reused when enough log switch events occur. Otherwise, if the media cannot be fixed, you can clear the log file. When you clear a log file, you are indicating that it can be reused. If the redo log group in question is ACTIVE, then, even though it is not currently being written to, it is still needed for instance recovery. If you are able to perform a checkpoint, then the log file group is no longer needed for instance recovery, and you can proceed as if the group were in the inactive state. If the log group is in the CURRENT state, then it is, or was, being actively written to at the time of the loss. You may even see the LGWR process fail in this case. If this happens, the instance crashes. Your only option at this point is to restore from backup, perform cancel-based point-in-time recovery, and then open the database with the RESETLOGS option.

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Clearing a Log File

Yes ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE ...

Log file archived? No

Needed for data file?

Yes

No ALTER DATABASE CLEAR UNARCHIVED LOGFILE ...

ALTER DATABASE CLEAR UNARCHIVED LOGFILE ... UNRECOVERABLE DATAFILE

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Clearing a Log File Clear a log file using this command: ALTER DATABASE CLEAR [UNARCHIVED] LOGFILE GROUP [UNRECOVERABLE DATAFILE]

When you clear a log file, you are indicating that it can be reused. If the log file has already been archived, the simplest form of the command can be used. Use the following query to determine which log groups have been archived: SQL> SELECT GROUP#, STATUS, ARCHIVED FROM V$LOG;

For example, the following command clears redo log group 3, which has already been archived: SQL> ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOFGILE GROUP 3;

If the redo log group has not been archived, then you must specify the UNARCHIVED keyword. This forces you to acknowledge that it is possible that there are backups that rely on that redo log for recovery, and you have decided to forgo that recovery opportunity. This may be satisfactory for you, especially if you take another backup right after you correct the redo log group problem; you then no longer need that redo log file. It is possible that the redo log is required to recover a data file that is currently offline.

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Start



A tablespace that contains only indexes may be recovered without performing a RECOVER task.



If a data file that belongs to an index-only tablespace is lost, it may be simpler to re-create the tablespace and recreate the indexes.

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Recovering from a Lost Index Tablespace Indexes are computed objects, in that they do not provide any original data, and they are only a different representation of data that already exists. So, in most cases, indexes can be re-created easily. If you have a tablespace that contains only indexes, recovering from a loss of a data file belonging to that tablespace can be simplified. When a data file like this is lost, you can perform the following steps: 1. Drop the data file. 2. Drop the tablespace. 3. Re-create the index tablespace. 4. Re-create the indexes that were in the tablespace.

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Recovering from a Lost Index Tablespace

Use options to reduce the time it takes to re-create the index: • PARALLEL • NOLOGGING SQL> CREATE INDEX rname_idx 2 ON hr.regions (region_name) 3 PARALLEL 4;

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Re-Creating Indexes When creating or re-creating an index, you can use the following keywords to reduce the creation time: • PARALLEL (NOPARALLEL is the default): Multiple processes can work together simultaneously to create an index. By dividing the work necessary to create an index among multiple server processes, the Oracle server can create the index more quickly than if a single server process created the index sequentially. The table is randomly sampled and a set of index keys is found that equally divides the index into the same number of pieces as the specified degree of parallelism. A first set of query processes scans the table, extracts the key-and-row ID pairs, and sends each pair to a process in a second set of query processes based on the key. Each process in the second set sorts the keys and builds an index in the usual fashion. After all index pieces are built, the parallel coordinator concatenates the pieces (which are ordered) to form the final index. • NOLOGGING: Using this keyword makes index creation faster because it creates a very minimal amount of redo log entries as a result of the creation process. This greatly minimized redo generation also applies to direct path inserts and Direct Loader (SQL*Loader) inserts. This is a permanent attribute and thus appears in the data dictionary. It can be updated with the ALTER INDEX NOLOGGING/LOGGING command at any time. Note: NOLOGGING can be overridden, if you are using Data Guard or FORCE LOGGING at the database or tablespace level. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Re-Creating Indexes

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Re-Creating Indexes (continued) When an index is lost, it may be faster and simpler just to re-create it rather than attempt to recover it. You can use Data Pump Export with the CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY parameter to create a dump file containing the SQL commands to re-create the index. You can also use Data Pump Import with the SQLFILE= parameter on a previously created dump file. The Data Pump Export and Import utilities are covered in detail in the Oracle Database 11g: Administration Workshop I course. Additional information can be found in Oracle Database Utilities.

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Remote database administration

Do you have a secure connection?

Local database administration

Yes

No

Do you want to use OS authentication?

Yes

No

Use OS authentication.

Use a password file.

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Authentication Methods for Database Administrators Depending on whether you want to administer your database locally on the same machine on which the database resides or to administer many different database servers from a single remote client, you can choose either operating system or password file authentication to authenticate database administrators: • If the database has a password file and you have been granted the SYSDBA or SYSOPER system privilege, then you can be authenticated by a password file. • If the server is not using a password file, or if you have not been granted SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges and are, therefore, not in the password file, you can use operating system authentication. On most operating systems, authentication for database administrators involves placing the operating system username of the database administrator in a special group, generically referred to as OSDBA. Users in that group are granted SYSDBA privileges. A similar group, OSOPER, is used to grant SYSOPER privileges to users. Operating system authentication takes precedence over password file authentication. Specifically, if you are a member of the OSDBA or OSOPER group for the operating system, and you connect as SYSDBA or SYSOPER, you will be connected with associated administrative privileges regardless of the username/password that you specify.

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Authentication Methods for Database Administrators

SQL> grant sysdba to admin2; grant sysdba to admin2 * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01994: GRANT failed: password file missing or disabled

To recover from the loss of a password file: 1. Re-create the password file by using orapwd. $ orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapworcl password=ora entries=5

2. Add users to the password file and assign appropriate privileges to each user.

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Re-creating a Password Authentication File The Oracle database provides a password utility, orapwd, to create a password file. When you connect using the SYSDBA privilege, you are connecting as the SYS schema and not the schema associated with your username. For SYSOPER, you are connected to the PUBLIC schema. Access to the database using the password file is provided by GRANT commands issued by privileged users. Typically, the password file is not included in backups because, in almost all situations, it can be easily re-created. It is critically important to the security of your system that you protect your password file and the environment variables that identify the location of the password file. Any user with access to these could potentially compromise the security of the connection. You should not remove or modify the password file if you have a database or instance mounted using REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE or SHARED. If you do, you will be unable to reconnect remotely using the password file. Note: Passwords are case-sensitive, so you must take that into consideration when re-creating the password file. Also if the original password file was created with the IGNORECASE=Y option, then it must be recreated with the same option.

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Re-creating a Password Authentication File

Re-creating a Password Authentication File (continued) Using a Password File The following are the steps for re-creating the password file: 1. Create the password file by using the password utility orapwd. where: - filename is the name of the password file (mandatory). - password is the password for SYS (optional). You are prompted for the password if you do not include the password argument. - Entries is the maximum number of distinct users allowed to connect as SYSDBA or SYSOPER. If you exceed this number, you must create a new password file. It is safer to have a larger number. There are no spaces around the “equal to” (=) character. Example: orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwU15 password=admin entries=5 2. Connect to the database by using the password file created in step 1, and grant privileges as needed. SQL> CONNECT sys/admin AS SYSDBA SQL> grant sysdba to admin2;

Password File Locations UNIX: $ORACLE_HOME/dbs Windows: %ORACLE_HOME%\database Maintaining the Password File Delete the existing password file by using operating system commands, and create a new password file by using the password utility.

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orapwd file=filename password=password entries=max_users

Recovery can have two kinds of scope: • Complete recovery: Brings the database up to the present, including all committed data changes made to the point in time when the recovery was requested • Incomplete or point-in-time recovery: Brings the database up to a specified point in time in the past, before the recovery operation was requested Time of crash

Complete recovery Point-in-time recovery Restore from this backup

Missing transactions after point-in-time recovery

Recovery task started at this time

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Comparing Complete and Incomplete Recovery When you perform complete recovery, you bring the database to the state where it is fully up-to-date, including all committed data modifications to the present time. Incomplete recovery, however, brings the database to some point in the past point-in-time. It is also known as “Database Point in Time Recovery ”. This means there are missing transactions; any data modifications done between the recovery destination time and the present are lost. In many cases, this is the desirable goal because there may have been some changes made to the database that need to be undone. Recovering to a point in the past is a way to remove the unwanted changes.

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Comparing Complete and Incomplete Recovery

Archived log Archived log Online Redo log Changes applied

Undo applied

4

2

1

3

Restored data files

Data files containing committed and uncommitted transactions

5 Recovered data files

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Complete Recovery Process The following steps describe what takes place during complete recovery: 1. Damaged or missing files are restored from a backup. 2. Changes from incremental backups, archived redo log files, and online redo log files are applied as necessary. The redo log changes are applied to the data files until the current online log is reached and the most recent transactions have been reentered. Undo blocks are generated during this entire process. This is referred to as rolling forward or cache recovery. 3. The restored data files may now contain committed and uncommitted changes. 4. The undo blocks are used to roll back any uncommitted changes. This is sometimes referred to as transaction recovery. 5. The data files are now in a recovered state and are consistent with the other data files in the database.

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Complete Recovery Process

Archived log Archived log Online Redo log

X

X

Changes applied to point in time (PIT) Database opened

2

1

4 3

Restored data files from as far back as necessary

Data files containing committed and uncommitted transactions up to PIT

Undo applied

5 6 PIT-recovered data files

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Point-in-Time Recovery Process Incomplete recovery, or database point-in-time recovery, uses a backup to produce a noncurrent version of the database. That is, you do not apply all of the redo records generated after the most recent backup. Perform this type of recovery only when absolutely necessary. To perform Point-inTime recovery, you need: • A valid offline or online backup of all the data files made before the recovery point • All archived logs from the time of the backup until the specified time of recovery The progression taken to perform an point-in-time recovery is listed below: 1. Restore the data files from backup: The backup that is used may not be the most recent one, if your restore point destination is to be not very recent. This entails either copying files using OS commands or using the RMAN RESTORE command. 2. Use the RECOVER command: Apply redo from the archived redo log files, including as many as necessary to reach the restore point destination. 3. State of over-recovery: Now the data files contain some committed and some uncommitted transactions because the redo can contain uncommitted data. 4. Use the ALTER DATABASE OPEN command: The database is opened before undo is applied. This is to provide higher availability.

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Point-in-Time Recovery Process

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Point-in-Time Recovery Process (continued) 5. Apply undo data: While the redo was being applied, redo supporting the undo data files was also applied. So the undo is available to be applied to the data files in order to undo any uncommitted transactions. That is done next. 6. Process complete: The data files are now recovered to the point in time that you chose. Point-in-time recovery is the only option if you must perform a recovery and discover that you are missing an archived log containing transactions that occurred sometime between the time of the backup you are restoring from and the target recovery SCN. Without the missing log, you have no record of the updates to your data files during that period. Your only choice is to recover the database from the point in time of the restored backup, as far as the unbroken series of archived logs permits, and then open the database with the RESETLOGS option. All changes in or after the missing redo log file are lost.

Special user-managed backup and recovery considerations for a read-only tablespace: • You do not have to put it in backup mode in order to make a copy of its data files. • You do not have to take the tablespace or data file offline before making a copy of it.

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Recovering a Read-Only Tablespace Because read-only tablespaces are not being written to, there are special considerations to take into account, which can make the recovery process faster and more efficient. You do not have to put a read-only tablespace into backup mode or take it offline before copying it to the backup location. Simply copy it. When restoring a read-only tablespace, take the tablespace offline, restore the data files belonging to the tablespace, and then bring the tablespace back online. Consider the following scenario, where a read-only tablespace is changed to be read/write: 1. Make a backup of a read-only tablespace. 2. Make the tablespace read-write. 3. Recover the tablespace. The backup you made in step 1 can still be used to recover this tablespace, even though, since the backup was made, the tablespace was made read-write, and has even possibly been written to. In this case, the tablespace requires recovery, after the files are stored from such a backup.

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Recovering a Read-Only Tablespace

Redo log

SQL> CREATE TABLE sales_copy NOLOGGING; SQL> INSERT /*+ APPEND */ INTO sales_copy 2 SELECT * FROM sales_history;

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Recovering NOLOGGING Database Objects Take advantage of the efficiencies of the NOLOGGING attribute of tables and indexes if you can. When you create a table as NOLOGGING, minimal redo data is written to the redo stream to support the creation of the object. This is useful for making large inserts go faster. In the example in the slide, the SALES_COPY table is created as a NOLOGGING table. As a result, when an insert is done with the APPEND hint, no redo is generated for that particular insert statement. As a result, you cannot recover this transaction on the SALES_HISTORY table. If that is a problem, it is important that you make a backup of whatever tables you populate in this way, right afterward. Then you are able to go to the more recent backup of the table. If you perform media recovery, and there are NOLOGGING objects involved, they will be marked logically corrupt during the recovery process. In this case, drop the NOLOGGING objects and recreate them. Use the REPORT UNRECOVERABLE RMAN command to list the names of any tablespaces that contain one or more objects for which a NOLOGGING operation has been performed since the most recent backup of that tablespace.

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Recovering NOLOGGING Database Objects

Current

Backup

Available

Restore backup control file, perform complete recovery, OPEN RESETLOGS

Restore backup control file, perform complete recovery, OPEN RESETLOGS

Unavailable

Re-create control file, OPEN RESETLOGS

Restore backup control file, perform point-in-time recovery, OPEN RESETLOGS

Online log status

Data file status

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Recovering from the Loss of All Control File Copies: Overview Loss of all control files should never happen. Prevention is better than recovery. Even though you have copies of the control file stored in different locations, there is still the possibility that you will, at some point, have to recover from losing all those copies. If you have lost all copies of the current control file, and have a backup control file, your course of action depends on the status of the online log files and the data files. The chart in the slide shows what to do in each of the situations shown. Online Logs Available If the online logs are available and contain redo necessary for recovery, and the data files are current, then you can restore a backup control file, perform complete recovery, and open the database with the RESETLOGS option. You must specify the file names of the online redo logs during recovery. If the data files are not current, perform the same procedure. Online Logs Not Available If the online logs are not available, and the data files are current, then re-create the control file and open RESETLOGS. However, if the data files are not current, restore a backup control file, perform point-in-time recovery, and open RESETLOGS.

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Recovering from the Loss of All Control File Copies: Overview

Recovering the Control File to the Default Location

Yes

No

Repair hardware.

Restore control file.

SHUTDOWN ABORT STARTUP MOUNT

Open database using RESETLOGS.

Start database recovery.

Archivelog missing? Yes

No

Specify online log.

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Recovering the Control File to the Default Location If you need to recover the control file, and the default location is still a valid one, follow the steps shown in the slide. The database must be shut down first. Then repair any hardware, so that the default location is able to remain as a valid one. Restore the control file to the default location. Do this using a command such as this, which copies the backup control file to the default location: % cp /backup/control01.dbf /disk1/oradata/trgt/control01.dbf % cp /backup/control02.dbf /disk2/oradata/trgt/control02.dbf

Mount the database, and start the recovery process. You must specify that a backup control file is being used. SQL> RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE UNTIL CANCEL;

If, during the recovery process, you are prompted for a missing redo log, it probably means that the missing redo log is an online redo log file. When prompted, supply the name of the online redo log file. After the recovery completes, open the database, specifying the RESETLOGS option. (More on this topic in the next lesson.)

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Database open?

In which of the following cases may the RMAN RECOVER command be issued? 1. The database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode using full backups. 2. The database is in ARCHIVELOG mode using full backups. 3. The database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode using incremental backups. 4. The database is in ARCHIVELOG mode using incremental backups.

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Answer: 2, 3, 4

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Quiz

Your password file is lost, From where can you, as DBA, recover the entries, so that you can re-create your lost password file? 1. Only from the RMAN catalog 2. From the control file 3. From the Enterprise Manager repository 4. From the data dictionary 5. You must manually regrant the SYSOPER, SYSDBA, and SYSASM entries.

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Answer: 5

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Quiz

In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Describe the causes of file loss and determine the appropriate action • Describe major recovery operations • Back up and recover a control file • Recover from a lost redo log group

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Summary

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Using RMAN to Perform Recovery

After completing this lesson, you should be able to use RMAN to: • Perform complete recovery when a critical or noncritical data file is lost • Recover using incrementally updated backups • Switch to image copies for fast recovery • Restore a database onto a new host • Recover using a backup control file

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Objectives For more details, see the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User’s Guide.

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Objectives

• •

RESTORE command: Restores database files from backup RECOVER command: Recovers restored files by applying changes recorded in incremental backups and redo log files

RMAN> SQL 'ALTER TABLESPACE inv_tbs OFFLINE IMMEDIATE'; RMAN> RESTORE TABLESPACE inv_tbs; RMAN> RECOVER TABLESPACE inv_tbs; RMAN> SQL 'ALTER TABLESPACE inv_tbs ONLINE';



The Enterprise Manager Recovery Wizard creates and runs an RMAN script to perform the recovery.

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Using RMAN RESTORE and RECOVER Commands Reconstructing the contents of an entire database or a part of it from a backup typically involves two phases: retrieving a copy of the data file from a backup, and reapplying changes to the file since the backup from the archived and online redo logs, to bring the database to the desired SCN (usually the most recent one). • RESTORE {DATABASE | TABLESPACE name [,name]... | DATAFILE name [,name] }... The RESTORE command retrieves the data file onto disk from a backup location on tape, disk, or other media, and makes it available to the database server. RMAN restores from backup any archived redo logs required during the recovery operation. If backups are stored on a media manager, channels must be configured or allocated for use in accessing backups stored there. • RECOVER {DATABASE | TABLESPACE name [,name]... | DATAFILE name [,name] }... The RECOVER command takes the restored copy of the data file and applies to it the changes recorded in the incremental backups and database’s redo logs. You can also perform complete or point-in-time recovery by using the Recovery Wizard available through Enterprise Manager. On the Availability page, click Perform Recovery in the Backup/Recovery section. Note: An automated method of detecting the need for recovery, and carrying out that recovery makes use of the Data Recovery Advisor, which is covered in the lesson titled “Diagnosing the Database.” THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Using RMAN RESTORE and RECOVER Commands

If a data file is lost or corrupted, and that file does not belong to the SYSTEM or UNDO tablespace, then restore and recover the missing data file.

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Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a Noncritical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode With the database in ARCHIVELOG mode, the loss of any data file not belonging to the SYSTEM or UNDO tablespaces affects only those objects that are in the missing file. To restore and recover the missing data file using Enterprise Manager, perform the following steps: 1. Click Perform Recovery on the Availability properties page. 2. Select “Datafiles” as Recovery Scope and “Restore datafiles” as Operation Type. 3. Add all data files that need recovery. 4. Specify from what backup the files are to be restored. 5. Determine whether you want to restore the files to the default location or (if a disk or controller is missing) to a new location. 6. Submit the RMAN job to restore and recover the missing files. Because the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode, recovery up to the time of the last commit is possible and users are not required to reenter any data.

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Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a Noncritical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode

If a data file is lost or corrupted, and that file belongs to the SYSTEM, UNDO (or SYSAUX) tablespace, then perform the following steps: 1. The instance may or may not shut down automatically. If it does not, use SHUTDOWN ABORT to shut the instance down. 2. Mount the database. 3. Restore and recover the missing data file. 4. Open the database.

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Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a System-Critical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode Data files belonging to the SYSTEM tablespace or containing UNDO data are considered system critical. If Enterprise Manger is used for recovery, the SYSAUX tablespace is critical as well. A loss of one of these files requires the database to be restored from the MOUNT state (unlike other data files that may be restored with the database open). Perform the following steps for complete recovery: 1. If the instance is not already shut down, shut it down. 2. Mount the database. 3. Click Perform Recovery on the Maintenance properties page. 4. Select “Datafiles” as the recovery type, and then select “Restore to current time.” 5. Add all data files that need recovery. 6. Determine whether you want to restore the files to the default location or (if a disk or controller is missing) to a new location. 7. Submit the RMAN job to restore and recover the missing files. 8. Open the database. Users are not required to reenter data because the recovery is up to the time of the last commit. Note: This kind of recovery situation is detected by the Data Recovery Advisor, which is covered in the lesson titled “Diagnosing the Database.” THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Performing Complete Recovery: Loss of a System-Critical Data File in ARCHIVELOG Mode

RMAN can recover image copies by using incremental backups: • Image copies are updated with all changes up to the incremental backup SCN. • Incremental backup reduces the time required for media recovery. • There is no need to perform an image copy after the incremental restoration. RMAN> RECOVER COPY OF 2> DATAFILE {n|'file_name'}

Incremental backup files Image copy of data file Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Recovering Image Copies You can use RMAN to apply incremental backups to data file image copies. With this recovery method, you use RMAN to recover a copy of a data file—that is, you roll forward (recover) the image copy to the specified point in time by applying the incremental backups to the image copy. The image copy is updated with all changes up through the SCN at which the incremental backup was taken. RMAN uses the resulting updated data file in media recovery just as it would use a full image copy taken at that SCN, without the overhead of performing a full image copy of the database every day. The following are the benefits of applying incremental backups to data file image copies: • You reduce the time required for media recovery (using archive logs) because you need to apply archive logs only since the last incremental backup. • You do not need to perform a full image copy after the incremental restoration. If the recovery process fails during the application of the incremental backup file, you simply restart the recovery process. RMAN automatically determines the required incremental backup files to apply, from before the image data file copy until the time at which you want to stop the recovery process. If there is more than one version of an image copy recorded in the RMAN catalog, RMAN automatically uses the latest version of the image copy. RMAN reports an error if it cannot merge an incremental backup file with an image copy.

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Recovering Image Copies

Recovering Image Copies: Example

RMAN> recover copy of database with tag 'daily_inc'; RMAN> backup incremental level 1 for recover of copy 2> with tag 'daily_inc' database;

This is the result: RECOVER

BACKUP

Day 1

Nothing

Create image copies

Day 2

Nothing

Create incremental level 1

Day 3 and onward

Recover copies based on incremental

Create incremental level 1

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Recovery Image Copies: Example If you run the commands shown in the slide daily, you get continuously updated image copies of all the database data files at any time. The chart shows what happens for each run. Note that this algorithm requires some priming; the strategy does not come to fruition until after day 3. Day 1: The RECOVER command does nothing. There exist no image copies to recover yet. The BACKUP command creates the image copies. Day 2: The RECOVER command, again, does nothing. This is because there is no incremental backup yet. The BACKUP command creates the incremental backup, now that baseline image copies have been created on day 1. Day 3: The RECOVER command applies the changes from the incremental backup to the image copies. The BACKUP command takes another incremental backup, which will be used to recover the image copies on day 4. The cycle continues like this. It is important to use tags when implementing this kind of backup strategy. They serve to link these particular incremental backups to the image copies that are made. Without the tag, the most recent, and possibly the incorrect, incremental backup would be used to recover the image copies.

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If you run these commands daily:

Perform fast recovery by performing the following steps: 1. Take data files offline. 2. Use the SWITCH TO ... COPY command to switch to image copies. 3. Recover data files. 4. Bring data files online. Now the data files are recovered and usable in their new location.

Optionally, do the following to put the files back into their original location: 5. Create an image copy of the data file in the original location. 6. Take data files offline. 7. SWITCH TO ... COPY 8. Recover data files. 9. Bring data files online.

SQL> SWITCH DATAFILE 'filename' TO COPY;

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Performing a Fast Switch to Image Copies You can use image copies of data files for fast recovery by performing the following steps: 1. Take the data file offline. 2. Use the SWITCH TO ... COPY command to point to the image copy of the files. 3. Recover the data files. 4. Bring the data files online. At this point, the database is usable, and the data files are recovered. But, if you want to put the data files back into their original location, proceed with the following steps: 5. Create an image copy of the data files in the original location using the BACKUP AS COPY command. 6. Take the data files offline. 7. Switch to the copy you made in step 5 using the SWITCH TO COPY command. 8. Recover the data files. 9. Bring the data files online. You can recover data files, tablespaces, tempfiles, or the entire database with this command. The files being switched to must be image copies.

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Performing a Fast Switch to Image Copies

Using SET NEWNAME for Switching Files Use the SET NEWNAME command in a RUN block to restore to a nondefault location.

RUN { ALLOCATE CHANNEL dev1 DEVICE TYPE DISK; ALLOCATE CHANNEL dev2 DEVICE TYPE sbt; SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE IMMEDIATE"; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE '/disk1/oradata/prod/users01.dbf' TO '/disk2/users01.dbf'; RESTORE TABLESPACE users; SWITCH DATAFILE ALL; RECOVER TABLESPACE users; SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE"; }

• •

Instead of individual names, specify a default name format for all files in a database or in a named tablespace. The default name is used for DUPLICATE, RESTORE, and SWITCH commands in the RUN block. Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Using SET NEWNAME for Switching Files The SET NEWNAME command can be used only inside a RUN block. It prepares a name mapping for subsequent operations. In the example in the slide, the SET NEWNAME command defines the location where a restore operation of that data file will be written. When the RESTORE command executes, the users01.dbf data file is restored to /disk2/users01.dbf. It is written there, but the control file is still not pointing to that location. The SWITCH command causes the control file to be updated with the new location. A more efficient way is to use the SET NEWNAME clause to specify the default name format for all data files in a named tablespace and all data files in the database (rather than setting file names individually, as in database versions prior to Oracle Database 11gR2 (11.2). The order of precedence for the SET NEWNAME command is as follows: 1. SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE and SET NEWNAME FOR TEMPFILE 2. SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE 3. SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE

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Substitution Variables for SET NEWNAME Description

%b

Specifies the file name without the directory path *NEW*

%f

Specifies the absolute file number of the data file for which the new name is generated

%I

Specifies the DBID

%N

Specifies the tablespace name

%U

Specifies a system-generated file name of the format: data-D-%d_id-%I_TS-%N_FNO-%f

RUN { SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO '/oradata1/system01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO '/oradata2/sysaux01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 TO '/oradata3/undotbs01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 TO '/oradata4/users01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE example TO '/oradata5/%b'; DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dupldb; } Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Substitution Variables for SET NEWNAME To avoid possible name collisions when restoring to another location, use the substitution variables of the SET NEWNAME command. Specify at least one of the following substitution variables: %b, %f, and %U. %I and %N are optional variables. The example shows the SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE command to set default names with a substitution variable, together with explicit SET NEWNAME clauses.

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Syntax Element

Performing Restore and Recovery of a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode If the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode, and any data file is lost, perform the following tasks: – Shut down the instance if it is not already down. – Restore the entire database, including all data and control files, from the backup. – Open the database.



Users must reenter all changes made since the last backup.

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Performing Restore and Recovery of a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode The loss of any data file from a database in NOARCHIVELOG mode requires complete restoration of the database, including control files and all data files. If you have incremental backups, then you need to perform the restore and recover operations. If the lost data file belongs to a read-only tablespace, you need to restore only that file. With the database in NOARCHIVELOG mode, recovery is possible only up to the time of the last backup. So users must reenter all changes made since that backup. For this type of recovery, use the RESTORE and RECOVER commands, or perform the following tasks in Enterprise Manager: 1. Shut down the instance if it is not already down. 2. Click Perform Recovery on the Maintenance properties page. 3. Select Whole Database as the type of recovery.

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Using Restore Points

SQL> CREATE RESTORE POINT before_mods;



Some time in the past:

SQL> CREATE RESTORE POINT end_q1 AS OF SCN 100;

Timeline

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Using Restore Points You can give a name to a particular point in time, or an SCN number. This is useful for future reference, when performing point-in-time recovery or flashback operations. • The first example in the slide creates a restore point that represents the present point in time. If you were about to apply an update of an application or data in the database, and you wanted to refer back to this state of the database, you could use the BEFORE_MODS restore point. • The second example in the slide creates a restore point representing a past SCN, 100. This restore point can be used in the same ways as the previous one. Normally, restore points are maintained in the database for at least as long as specified by the CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME initialization parameter. However, you can use the PRESERVE option when creating a restore point, which causes the restore point to be saved until you explicitly delete it. You can see restore points in the V$RESTORE_POINT view with name, SCN, timestamp and other information.

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A restore point provides a name to a point in time: • Now:

Perform server-managed point-in-time recovery by doing the following: 1. Determine the target point of the restore: SCN, time, restore point, or log sequence number. 2. Set the NLS environment variables appropriately. 3. Mount the database. 4. Prepare and run a RUN block, using the SET UNTIL, RESTORE, and RECOVER commands. 5. Open the database in READONLY mode, and verify that the recovery point is what you wanted. 6. Open the database using RESETLOGS.

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Performing Point-in-Time Recovery You can perform server-managed point-in-time recovery using the following steps. The database must be in ARCHIVELOG mode. 1. Determine the restore target. This can be in terms of a date and time, an SCN, restore point, or log sequence number. For example, if you know that some bad transactions were submitted at 3:00 PM yesterday, then you can choose 2:59 PM yesterday as the target restore point time. 2. Set the National Language Support (NLS) OS environment variables, so that the time constants you provide to RMAN are formatted correctly. These are some example settings: $ export NLS_LANG = american_america.us7ascii $ export NLS_DATE_FORMAT = "yyyy-mm-dd:hh24:mi:ss"

3. Mount the database. If it is open, you have to shut it down first, as in this example: RMAN> shutdown immediate RMAN> startup mount

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Performing Point-in-Time Recovery

Performing Point-in-Time Recovery (continued)

RUN { SET UNTIL TIME '2007-08-14:21:59:00'; RESTORE DATABASE; RECOVER DATABASE; }

5. As soon as you open the database for read/write, you have committed to the restore you just performed. So, first, open the database READ ONLY, and view some data, to check whether the recovery did what you expected. RMAN> SQL 'ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY';

6. If satisfied with the results of the recovery, open the database with the RESETLOGS option, as shown: RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

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4. Create a RUN block and run it. The RECOVER and RESTORE commands should be in the same RUN block so that the UNTIL setting applies to both. For example, if you choose to recover to a particular SCN, the RESTORE command needs to know that value so it restores files from backups that are sufficiently old—that is, backups that are from before that SCN. Here is an example of a RUN block:

• • •

Restore and mount a backup control file when all copies of the current control file are lost or damaged. Execute the RECOVER command after restoring the backup control file. Open the database with the RESETLOGS option after performing complete or point-in-time recovery.

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Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File If you have lost all copies of the current control file, you must restore and mount a backup control file before performing recovery. Your recovery operation may be to recover lost data files or it may be to simply recover the control file. If you are using a recovery catalog, the process is identical to recovery with a current control file because RMAN can use the recovery catalog to obtain RMAN metadata.

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Performing Recovery with a Backup Control File

Recovery from Loss of Server Parameter File

SQL> CREATE PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ] FROM { { SPFILE [= 'spfile_name'] } | MEMORY } ;

SQL> CREATE SPFILE [= 'spfile_name' ] FROM { { PFILE [= 'pfile_name' ] } | MEMORY } ;

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Recovery from Loss of Server Parameter File The easiest way to recover a server parameter file is to use the FROM MEMORY clause, which creates a text initialization parameter file (PFILE) or server parameter file (SPFILE) using the current systemwide parameter settings. In a RAC environment, the created file contains the parameter settings from each instance. During instance startup, all parameter settings are logged to the alert.log file. As of Oracle Database 11g, the alert.log parameter dump text is written in valid parameter syntax. This facilitates cutting and pasting of parameters into a separate file, and then using as a PFILE for a subsequent instance. The name of the PFILE or SPFILE is written to the alert.log at instance startup time. In cases when an unknown client-side PFILE is used, the alert log indicates this as well. To support this additional functionality, the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to 11.0.0.0 or higher.

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The FROM MEMORY clause allows the creation of current systemwide parameter settings.

RMAN> STARTUP FORCE NOMOUNT; RMAN> RESTORE SPFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP; RMAN> STARTUP FORCE; Recovery Manager (RMAN)

Server parameter file

Flash Recovery Area

Database

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Restoring the Server Parameter File from the Control File Autobackup If you have lost the server parameter file and you cannot use the FROM MEMORY clause, then you can restore it from the autobackup. The procedure is similar to restoring the control file from autobackup. If the autobackup is not in the flash recovery area, set the DBID for your database. Issue the RESTORE SPFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP command. If you are restoring the SPFILE to a nondefault location, specify the command as follows: RESTORE SPFILE TO FROM AUTOBACKUP

If you are restoring the server parameter file from the Flash Recovery Area, specify the command as follows: RMAN> run { 2> restore spfile from autobackup 3> recovery area = '' 4> db_name = ''; 5> }

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Restoring the Server Parameter File from the Control File Autobackup

Recovery Manager (RMAN)

Flash Recovery Area

Control file Database RMAN> RMAN> RMAN> RMAN> RMAN>

STARTUP NOMOUNT; RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP; ALTER DATABASE MOUNT; RECOVER DATABASE; ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS; Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Restoring the Control File from Autobackup If you are not using a recovery catalog, you should have autobackup of the control file configured, so that you are able to quickly restore the control file if needed. The commands used for restoring your control file are the same, whether or not you are using a Flash Recovery Area. However, if you are using a Flash Recovery Area, RMAN implicitly cross-checks backups and image copies listed in the control file, and catalogs any files in the Flash Recovery Area not recorded in the restored control file, improving the usefulness of the restored control file in the restoration of the rest of your database. Use the commands shown in the slide to recover from lost control files. First, start the instance in NOMOUNT mode. It cannot be mounted because there is no control file. Restore the control file from backup. Now that there is a control file, you can mount the database. You must now recover the database, because you now have a backup control file that contains information about an older version of the database. After recovering the database, you can open it. You must specify RESETLOGS because the new control file represents a different instantiation of the database. Note: Tape backups are not automatically cross-checked after the restoration of a control file. If you are using tape backups, then after restoring the control file and mounting the database, you must cross-check the backups on tape.

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Restoring the Control File from Autobackup

RMAN> RMAN> RMAN> RMAN>

SHUTDOWN ABORT; STARTUP NOMOUNT; SET DBID 1090770270; RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP;

RMAN searches for a control file autobackup. If one is found, RMAN restores the control file from that backup to all the control file locations listed in the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter. If you have a recovery catalog, you do not have to set the DBID or use the control file autobackup to restore the control file. You can use the RESTORE CONTROLFILE command with no arguments: RMAN> RESTORE CONTROLFILE;

The instance must be in the NOMOUNT state when you perform this operation, and RMAN must be connected to the recovery catalog. The restored control file is written to all locations listed in the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter. Use the RESTORE CONTROLFILE... TO command to restore the control file to a nondefault location. If you have also lost the SPFILE for the database and need to restore it from the autobackup, the procedure is similar to restoring the control file from autobackup. You must first set the DBID for your database, and then use the RESTORE SPFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP command. After you have started the instance with the restored server parameter file, RMAN can restore the control file from the autobackup. After you restore and mount the control file, you have the backup information necessary to restore and recover the database. After restoring the control files of your database from backup, you must perform complete media recovery and then open your database with the RESETLOGS option.

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Restoring the Control File from Autobackup (continued) To restore the control file from an autobackup, the database must be in a NOMOUNT state. If the autobackup is not in the flash recovery area, you must set the database identifier (DBID) before issuing the RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP command, as shown in the following example:

Using Incremental Backups to Recover a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode

STARTUP FORCE NOMOUNT; RESTORE CONTROLFILE; ALTER DATABASE MOUNT; RESTORE DATABASE; RECOVER DATABASE NOREDO; ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

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Using Incremental Backups to Recover a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode You can perform limited recovery of a NOARCHIVELOG mode database by using incremental backups. The incremental backups must be consistent backups. If you have taken incremental backups, RMAN will use your level 0 and level 1 backups to restore and recover the database. You must specify the NOREDO option on the RECOVER DATABASE command if the online redo log files are lost or if the redo cannot be applied to the incremental backups. If you do not specify the NOREDO option, RMAN searches for the online redo log files after applying the incremental backups. If the online redo log files are not available, RMAN issues an error message. If the current online redo log files contain all changes since the last incremental backup, you can issue the RECOVER DATABASE command without the NOREDO option and the changes will be applied. Note: You need to restore the control file only if it is not current.

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Use incremental backups to perform limited recovery of a database in NOARCHIVELOG mode.

Use the procedure to: • Perform test restores • Move a production database to a new host

Backups

Server parameter file

RMAN>

Server parameter file

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Restoring and Recovering the Database on a New Host Use the procedure described on the following pages to perform test restores. You can also use it to move a production database to a new host. The database identifier (DBID) for the restored test database is the same as the DBID of the original database. If you are using a recovery catalog and connect to the test database and the recovery catalog database, the recovery catalog is updated with information about the test database. This can impact RMAN’s ability to restore and recover the source database. You should create a duplicate database using the RMAN DUPLICATE command if your goal is to create a new copy of your target database for ongoing use on a new host. The duplicate database is assigned a new DBID that allows it to be registered in the same recovery catalog as the original target database. Refer to the lesson titled “Using RMAN to Duplicate a Database” for detailed information about the DUPLICATE command.

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Restoring and Recovering the Database on a New Host

To prepare to restore a database, perform the following steps: • Record the database identifier (DBID) of your source database. • Copy the source database initialization parameter file to the new host. • Ensure that source backups, including the control file autobackup, are accessible on the restore host.

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Preparing to Restore the Database to a New Host Perform the steps listed in the slide to prepare for the restore of the database to a new host. Note: If you are performing a test restore, do not connect to the recovery catalog when restoring the data files. If you connect to the recovery catalog, RMAN records information about the restored data files in the recovery catalog and considers the restored database as the current target database. If your control file is not large enough to contain all of the RMAN repository data on the backups you need to restore and you must use a recovery catalog, then export the catalog and import it into a different schema or database. Use the copied recovery catalog for the test restore.

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Preparing to Restore the Database to a New Host

Perform the following steps on the restore host to restore the database: 1. Configure the ORACLE_SID environment variable. 2. Start RMAN and connect to the target instance in NOCATALOG mode. 3. Set the database identifier (DBID). 4. Start the instance in NOMOUNT mode. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Restore the server parameter file from the backup sets. Shut down the instance. Edit the restored initialization parameter file. Start the instance in NOMOUNT mode.

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Restoring the Database to a New Host Perform the steps listed on this page and the next on the restore host to restore the database. 1. Configure the ORACLE_SID environment variable as shown in the following example: $ setenv ORACLE_SID orcl

2. Start RMAN and connect to the target instance. Do not connect to the recovery catalog as shown in the following example: $ rman TARGET /

3. Set the database identifier (DBID). You can find the DBID of your source database by querying the DBID column in V$DATABASE. RMAN> SET DBID 1090770270;

4. Start the instance in NOMOUNT mode: RMAN> STARTUP NOMOUNT

You will receive an error similar to the following because the server parameter file has not been restored. RMAN uses a “dummy” parameter file to start the instance. startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters

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Restoring the Database to a New Host

Restoring the Database to a New Host (continued) 5. Restore the server parameter file from the backup sets and shut down the instance as shown in the example: RESTORE SPFILE TO PFILE '?/oradata/test/initorcl.ora' FROM AUTOBACKUP;

6. Shut down the instance: 7. Edit the restored initialization parameter file to change any location-specific parameters, such as those ending in _DEST, to reflect the new directory structure. 8. Start the instance in NOMOUNT mode using your edited text initialization parameter file. RMAN> STARTUP NOMOUNT > PFILE='?/oradata/test/initorcl.ora';

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SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;

Restoring the Database to a New Host

– Restore the control file – Mount the database

10. Create the RMAN recovery script to restore and recover the database. 11. Execute the RMAN script. 12. Open the database with the RESETLOGS option.

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Restoring the Database to a New Host (continued) 9. Create a RUN block to restore the control file from an autobackup and mount the database as shown in the example: RUN { RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP; ALTER DATABASE MOUNT; }

10. Query V$DATAFILE on your new host to determine the database file names as recorded in the control file. Create the RMAN recovery script to restore and recover the database, including the following steps as appropriate: a. Use the SET NEWNAME command to specify the path on your new host for each of the data files that is restored to a different destination than on the original host. b. Use the SQL ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command to specify the path for the online redo log files. c. Include the SET UNTIL command to limit recovery to the end of the archived redo log files. d. Include the SWITCH command so that the control file recognizes the new path names as the correct names for the data files. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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9. Create a RUN block to:

RUN { SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO '?/oradata/test/system01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO '?/oradata/test/undotbs01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 TO '?/oradata/test/sysaux.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 TO '?/oradata/test/users01.dbf'; SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 5 TO '?/oradata/test/example01.dbf'; SQL "ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE ''/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'' TO ''?/oradata/test/redo01.log'' "; SQL "ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE ''/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'' TO ''?/oradata/test/redo02.log'' "; SQL "ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE ''/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'' TO ''?/oradata/test/redo03.log'' "; SET UNTIL SCN 4545727; RESTORE DATABASE; SWITCH DATAFILE ALL; RECOVER DATABASE; }

11. Execute the recovery script. 12. Open the database with the RESETLOGS option: RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

After you have completed your test, you can shut down the test database instance and delete the test database with all its files.

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Restoring the Database to a New Host (continued) An example of a recovery script follows:



• •

Disaster implies the loss of the entire target database, the recovery catalog database, all current control files, all online redo log files, and all parameter files. Disaster recovery includes the restoration and recovery of the target database. Minimum required set of backups: – Backups of data files – Corresponding archived redo logs files – At least one control file autobackup

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Performing Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery includes the restoration and recovery of the target database after the loss of the entire target database, all current control files, all online redo log files, all parameter files, and the recovery catalog database (if applicable). To perform disaster recovery, the following backups are required as a minimum: • Backups of data files • Corresponding archived redo logs generated after the time of the backup • At least one autobackup of the control file Note: Refer to the Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration manual for information about how Oracle Data Guard can provide complete disaster protection.

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Performing Disaster Recovery

Basic procedure: • Restore an autobackup of the server parameter file. • Start the target database instance. • Restore the control file from autobackup. • Mount the database. • Restore the data files. • Recover the data files. • Open the database with the RESETLOGS option.

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Performing Disaster Recovery (continued) The basic procedure for performing disaster recovery is outlined in the slide. After you have mounted the database, follow the steps for performing recovery with a backup control file.

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Performing Disaster Recovery

Quiz

1. To roll forward changes to the control file by resynchronizing from the data files 2. To roll forward changes to the control file by applying redo from the redo logs 3. To roll forward changes to the control file by using the RMAN catalog

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Answer: 2

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When you have lost no data files and you recover the backup control file, why is the RECOVER command required?

With the RESTORE command, you restore database files from backup, but you do not apply redo from redo logs. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 1

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Quiz

In this lesson, you should have learned how to use RMAN to do the following: • Perform complete recovery when a critical or noncritical data file is lost • Recover using incrementally updated backups • Switch to image copies for fast recovery • Restore a database onto a new host • Recover using a backup control file

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Summary

This practice covers the following topics: • Recovering image copies • Performing fast recovery

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Practice 7 Overview: Using RMAN to Perform Recovery

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Monitoring and Tuning RMAN

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Monitor the progress of RMAN jobs • Configure RMAN appropriately for asynchronous I/O • Configure RMAN multiplexing so as to keep tape drives streaming efficiently • Evaluate the balance between speed of backup versus speed of recovery • Explain the effect of the following parameters on RMAN performance: MAXPIECESIZE, FILESPERSET, MAXOPENFILES • Explain how the RMAN BACKUP DURATION option can cause backups to either execute faster or take longer, (freeing up resources for other processing) Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Objectives

Parallelization of Backup Sets

Data file 1

Data file 4

Data file 5

Channel MML

Data file 2

Data file 3

Data file 9

Channel MML

Data file 6

Data file 7

Data file 8

Backup piece 1

Backup piece 2

Channel MML

Backup Piece 3

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Parallelization of Backup Sets You can configure parallel backups by setting the PARALLELISM option of the CONFIGURE command to greater than 1 or by manually allocating multiple channels. RMAN parallelizes its operation and writes multiple backup sets in parallel. The server sessions divide the work of backing up the specified files. Example RMAN> RUN { 2> ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE sbt; 3> ALLOCATE CHANNEL c2 DEVICE TYPE sbt; 4> ALLOCATE CHANNEL c3 DEVICE TYPE sbt; 5> BACKUP 6> INCREMENTAL LEVEL = 0 7> (DATAFILE 1,4,5 CHANNEL c1) 8> (DATAFILE 2,3,9 CHANNEL c2) 9> (DATAFILE 6,7,8 CHANNEL c3); 10> SQL 'ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT'; 11> }

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For performance, allocate multiple channels and assign files to specific channels.

Parallelization of Backup Sets (continued) When backing up data files, you can specify the files to be backed up by either their path name or their file number. For example, the following two commands perform the same action:

When you create multiple backup sets and allocate multiple channels, RMAN automatically parallelizes its operation and writes multiple backup sets in parallel. The allocated server sessions share the work of backing up the specified data files, control files, and archived redo logs. You cannot stripe a single backup set across multiple channels. Parallelization of backup sets is achieved by: • Configuring PARALLELISM to greater than 1 or allocating multiple channels • Specifying many files to back up Example • There are nine files that need to be backed up (data files 1 through 9). • Assign the data files to a backup set so that each set has approximately the same number of data blocks to back up (for efficiency). - Data files 1, 4, and 5 are assigned to backup set 1. - Data files 2, 3, and 9 are assigned to backup set 2. - Data files 6, 7, and 8 are assigned to backup set 3. Note: You can also use the FILESPERSET parameter to limit the number of data files that are included in a backup set.

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BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt DATAFILE '/home/oracle/system01.dbf'; BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt DATAFILE 1;

• •

Query V$SESSION and V$PROCESS to identify the relationship between server sessions and RMAN channels. If you are monitoring multiple sessions, use the SET COMMAND ID command to correlate a process with a channel during a backup.

SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> 2 3 4

COLUMN CLIENT_INFO FORMAT a30 COLUMN SID FORMAT 999 COLUMN SPID FORMAT 9999 SELECT s.sid, p.spid, s.client_info FROM v$process p, v$session s WHERE p.addr = s.paddr AND CLIENT_INFO LIKE 'rman%';

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Monitoring RMAN Sessions To identify which server sessions correspond to which RMAN channels, you can query V$SESSION and V$PROCESS. The SPID column of V$PROCESS identifies the operating system ID number for the process or the thread. On UNIX, the SPID column shows the process ID. On Windows, the SPID column shows the thread ID. There are two basic methods for obtaining this information, depending on whether you have multiple RMAN sessions active concurrently. When only one RMAN session is active, execute the following query on the target database while the RMAN job is running: SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> 2 3 4 SID ---15 13

COLUMN CLIENT_INFO FORMAT a30 COLUMN SID FORMAT 999 COLUMN SPID FORMAT 9999 SELECT s.sid, p.spid, s.client_info FROM v$process p, v$session s WHERE p.addr = s.paddr AND CLIENT_INFO LIKE 'rman%'; SPID CLIENT_INFO ------------ -----------------------------2714 rman channel=ORA_SBT_TAPE_1 2715 rman channel=ORA_SBT_TAPE_2

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Monitoring RMAN Sessions

RUN { SET COMMAND ID TO 'sess1'; BACKUP DATABASE; }

Set the command ID to a string such as sess2 in the job running in session 2: RUN { SET COMMAND ID TO 'sess2'; BACKUP DATABASE; }

2. Start a SQL*Plus session and then query the joined V$SESSION and V$PROCESS views while the RMAN job is being executed. For example, enter: SELECT SID, SPID, CLIENT_INFO FROM V$PROCESS p, V$SESSION s WHERE p.ADDR = s.PADDR AND CLIENT_INFO LIKE '%id=sess%';

If you run the SET COMMAND ID command in the RMAN job, then the CLIENT_INFO column is displayed in the following format: id=command_id,rman channel=channel_id For example, the following shows a sample output: SID ---11 15 14 9

SPID -----------8358 8638 8374 8642

CLIENT_INFO -----------------------------id=sess1 id=sess2 id=sess1,rman channel=c1 id=sess2,rman channel=c1

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Monitoring RMAN Sessions (continued) When multiple RMAN sessions are running, it helps to correlate a process with a channel during a backup by using the SET COMMAND ID command as shown below: 1. In each session, set the command ID to a different value and then back up the desired object. For example, enter the following in session 1:

Monitoring RMAN Job Progress

SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7

SELECT OPNAME, CONTEXT, SOFAR, TOTALWORK, ROUND(SOFAR/TOTALWORK*100,2) "%_COMPLETE" FROM V$SESSION_LONGOPS WHERE OPNAME LIKE 'RMAN%' AND OPNAME NOT LIKE '%aggregate%' AND TOTALWORK != 0 AND SOFAR TOTALWORK;

SID SERIAL# CONTEXT SOFAR TOTALWORK %_COMPLETE --- ------- ------- ------- --------- ---------13 75 1 9470 15360 61.65 12 81 1 15871 28160 56.36

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Monitoring RMAN Job Progress Monitor the progress of backups, copies, and restores by querying the V$SESSION_LONGOPS view. RMAN uses detail and aggregate rows in V$SESSION_LONGOPS. Detail rows describe the files that are being processed by one job step. Aggregate rows describe the files that are processed by all job steps in an RMAN command. A job step is the creation or restoration of one backup set or data file copy. The detail rows are updated with every buffer that is read or written during the backup step, so their granularity of update is small. The aggregate rows are updated when each job step is completed, so their granularity of update is large. Note: Set the STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter to TYPICAL (the default value) or ALL to populate the V$SESSION_LONGOPS view. The relevant columns in V$SESSION_LONGOPS for RMAN include: • OPNAME: A text description of the row. Detail rows include RMAN:datafile copy, RMAN:full datafile backup, and RMAN:full datafile restore. • CONTEXT: For backup output rows, the value of this column is 2. For all the other rows except proxy copy (which does not update this column), the value is 1.

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Monitor the progress of backup and restore operations by querying V$SESSION_LONGOPS.

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Monitoring RMAN Job Progress (continued) • SOFAR: For image copies, the number of blocks that have been read; for backup input rows, the number of blocks that have been read from the files that are being backed up; for backup output rows, the number of blocks that have been written to the backup piece; for restores, the number of blocks that have been processed to the files that are being restored in this one job step; and for proxy copies, the number of files that have been copied • TOTALWORK: For image copies, the total number of blocks in the file; for backup input rows, the total number of blocks to be read from all files that are processed in this job step; for backup output rows, the value is 0 because RMAN does not know how many blocks it will write into any backup piece; for restores, the total number of blocks in all files restored in this job step; and for proxy copies, the total number of files to be copied in this job step

RMAN troubleshooting information can be found in: • RMAN command output • RMAN trace file • Alert log • Oracle server trace file • sbtio.log file

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Interpreting RMAN Message Output The RMAN command output contains actions that are relevant to the RMAN job as well as error messages that are generated by RMAN, the server, and the media vendor. RMAN error messages have an RMAN-nnnn prefix. The output is displayed to the terminal (standard output) but can be written to a file by defining the LOG option or by shell redirection. The RMAN trace file contains the DEBUG output and is used only when the TRACE command option is used. The alert log contains a chronological log of errors, nondefault initialization parameter settings, and administration operations. Because it records values for overwritten control file records, it can be useful for RMAN maintenance when operating without a recovery catalog. The Oracle trace file contains detailed output that is generated by Oracle server processes. This file is created when an ORA-600 or ORA-3113 (following an ORA-7445) error message occurs, whenever RMAN cannot allocate a channel, and when the Media Management Library fails to load. It can be found in USER_DUMP_DEST. The sbtio.log file contains vendor-specific information that is written by the media management software and can be found in USER_DUMP_DEST. Note that this log does not contain Oracle server or RMAN errors.

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Interpreting RMAN Message Output

Using the DEBUG Option The DEBUG option is used to: – View the PL/SQL that is generated – Determine precisely where an RMAN command is hanging or faulting

• •

The DEBUG option is specified at the RMAN prompt or within a run block. The DEBUG option creates an enormous amount of output, so redirect the output to a trace file:

$ rman target / catalog rman/rman debug trace trace.log

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Using the DEBUG Option The DEBUG option displays all SQL statements that are executed during RMAN compilations and the results of these executions. Any information that is generated by the recovery catalog PL/SQL packages is also displayed. In the following example, the DEBUG output is written during the backup of data file 3, but not data file 4: RMAN> run { debug on; allocate channel c1 type disk; backup datafile 3; debug off; backup datafile 4; }

Remember that the DEBUG output can be voluminous, so make sure that you have adequate disk space for the trace file. This simple backup session that does not generate any errors creates a trace file that is almost half a megabyte in size: $ rman target / catalog rman/rman debug trace sample.log RMAN> backup database; RMAN> host "ls –l sample.log"; -rw-r--r-1 user02 dba 576270 Apr 6 10:38 sample.log host command complete

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• • •

Read the stack from bottom to top. Look for Additional information. RMAN-03009 identifies the failed command.

RMAN-00571: RMAN-00569: RMAN-00571: RMAN-03009:

=========================================== ======= ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ======= =========================================== failure of backup command on c1 channel at 09/04/2001 13:18:19 ORA-19506: failed to create sequential file, name="07d36ecp_1_1", parms="" ORA-27007: failed to open file SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory Additional information: 7005 Additional information: 1 ORA-19511: Error from media manager layer,error text:

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Interpreting RMAN Error Stacks Because of the amount of data that RMAN logs, you may find it difficult to identify the useful messages in the RMAN error stack. Note the following tips and suggestions: • Because many of the messages in the error stack are not meaningful for troubleshooting, try to identify the one or two errors that are most important. • Check for a line that says Additional information followed by an integer. This line indicates a media management error. The integer that follows refers to code that is explained in the text of the error message. • Read the messages from bottom to top because this is the order in which RMAN issues the messages. The last one or two errors that are displayed in the stack are often informative. • Look for the RMAN-03002 or RMAN-03009 message immediately following the banner. The RMAN-03009 is the same as RMAN-03002 but includes the channel ID. If the failure is related to an RMAN command, then these messages indicate which command failed. The syntax errors generate an RMAN-00558 error.

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Interpreting RMAN Error Stacks

Tuning RMAN RMAN BACKUP and RESTORE operations perform the following tasks: – Read or write data. – Process data by copying and validating blocks.

• • •

The slowest of these tasks is referred to as a bottleneck, for any particular process. Tuning RMAN requires that the bottlenecks be identified and addressed. Performance of backup versus recovery operations can be balanced to suit your needs.

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Tuning RMAN RMAN backup and restore operations perform the following distinct tasks: • Reading or writing input data • Processing data by validating and copying blocks from the input to the output buffers The slowest of these tasks is called a bottleneck. RMAN tuning involves identifying the bottleneck (or bottlenecks) and attempting to make it more efficient by using RMAN commands, initialization parameter settings, or adjustments to the physical media. The key to tuning RMAN is in understanding the input/output (I/O). The backup and restore jobs of RMAN use two types of I/O buffers: disk and tertiary storage (usually tape). When performing a backup, RMAN reads input files by using disk buffers and writes the output backup file by using either the disk or the tape buffer. When performing restores, RMAN reverses these roles. I/O can be synchronous and asynchronous. Synchronous devices perform only one I/O task at a time. Therefore, you can easily determine how much time the backup jobs require. In contrast to synchronous I/O (SIO), asynchronous I/O (AIO) can perform more than one task at a time. To tune RMAN effectively, you must thoroughly understand the concepts of synchronous and asynchronous I/O, disk and tape buffers, and channel architecture. With an understanding of these concepts, you can use fixed views to monitor bottlenecks.

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Tuning RMAN (continued) You may be able to take advantage of some backup and recovery features that allow you to balance the performance of backup operations versus recovery operations. For example, if you require shorter recovery time, then you may want to perform image copy recovery on a regular basis. That takes more resources to prepare for recovery, but would lessen the amount of time needed to perform the recovery.

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RMAN Multiplexing For reads:

Multiplexing Level

Allocation Rule

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Setting LARGE_POOL_SIZE

• • •

Use BACKUP... VALIDATE to determine whether tape streaming or disk I/O is the bottleneck. Use multiplexing to improve tape streaming with disk bottlenecks. Use incremental backups to improve backup performance with tape bottlenecks.

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Tuning RMAN Tape Streaming Performance Bottlenecks To identify and remedy bottlenecks that affect RMAN’s performance on tape backups, perform the following actions : • Use BACKUP... VALIDATE to determine whether tape streaming or disk I/O is the bottleneck in a given backup job. Compare the time required to run backup tasks with the time required to run BACKUP VALIDATE of the same tasks. BACKUP VALIDATE of a backup to tape performs the same disk reads as a real backup but performs no tape I/O. If the time required for the BACKUP VALIDATE to tape is significantly less than the time required for a real backup to tape, then writing to tape is the likely bottleneck. • Use multiplexing to improve tape streaming with disk bottlenecks. In some situations when RMAN is performing a backup to tape, it may not be able to send data blocks to the tape drive fast enough to support streaming. For example, during an incremental backup, RMAN backs up only blocks changed since a previous data file backup as part of the same strategy. If you do not enable change tracking, RMAN must scan entire data files for changed blocks, and fill output buffers as it finds such blocks. If there are not many changed blocks, RMAN may not fill output buffers fast enough to keep the tape drive streaming. You can improve performance by increasing the degree of multiplexing used for backups. This increases the rate at which RMAN fills tape buffers, which makes it more likely that buffers are sent to the media manager fast enough to maintain streaming. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Tuning RMAN Tape Streaming Performance Bottlenecks

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Tuning RMAN Tape Streaming Performance Bottlenecks (continued) • Use incremental backups to improve backup performance with tape bottlenecks. If writing to tape is the source of a bottleneck for your backups, consider using incremental backups as part of your backup strategy. Incremental level 1 backups write only the changed blocks from data files to tape, so that any bottleneck on writing to tape has less impact on your overall backup strategy. In particular, if tape drives are not locally attached to the node running the database being backed up, then incremental backups can be faster.

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Select which statements are true about RMAN tuning: 1. You can configure parallel backups by setting the PARALLELISM option of the CONFIGURE command to greater than 1 or by manually allocating multiple channels. 2. You can stripe a single backup set across multiple channels to improve performance. 3. Whenever you improve the speed of the backup operation, you also automatically improve the speed of the restore and recover operations.

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Answer: 1

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Quiz

You can never have RMAN bottlenecks because the Tuning Advisor fixes them automatically. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 2

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Quiz

In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Monitor the progress of RMAN jobs • Configure RMAN appropriately for asynchronous I/O • Configure RMAN multiplexing so as to keep tape drives streaming efficiently • Evaluate the balance between speed of backup versus speed of recovery • Explain the effect of the following parameters on RMAN performance: MAXPIECESIZE, FILESPERSET, MAXOPENFILES • Explain how the RMAN BACKUP DURATION option can cause backups to either execute faster or take longer (freeing up resources for other processing) Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Summary

This practice covers the following topics: • Monitoring RMAN jobs • Using EM to monitor RMAN

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Practice 8 Overview: Monitoring and Tuning RMAN

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Diagnosing the Database

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Detect and repair database corruption • Handle block corruption • Set up Automatic Diagnostic Repository • Run health checks

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Objectives

• • • •

Data Recovery Ad. Block Corruption ADR Health Monitor

Fast detection, analysis, and repair of failures Minimizing disruptions for users Down-time and run-time failures User interfaces: – EM GUI interface (several paths) – RMAN command line



Supported database configurations: – Single-instance – Not RAC – Supporting failover to standby, but not analysis and repair of standby databases Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Data Recovery Advisor The Data Recovery Advisor automatically gathers data failure information when an error is encountered. In addition, it can proactively check for failures. In this mode, it can potentially detect and analyze data failures before a database process discovers the corruption and signals an error. (Note that repairs are always under human control.) Data failures can be very serious. For example, if your current log files are missing, you cannot start your database. Some data failures (such as block corruptions in data files) are not catastrophic, in that they do not take the database down or prevent you from starting the Oracle instance. The Data Recovery Advisor handles both cases: the one when you cannot start up the database (because some required database files are missing, inconsistent, or corrupted) and the one when file corruptions are discovered during run time.

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Data Recovery Advisor

>

rman target / nocatalog rman> list failure all;

Supported Database Configurations In the current release, the Data Recovery Advisor supports single-instance databases. Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) databases are not supported. The Data Recovery Advisor cannot use blocks or files transferred from a standby database to repair failures on a primary database. Also, you cannot use the Data Recovery Advisor to diagnose and repair failures on a standby database. However, the Data Recovery Advisor does support failover to a standby database as a repair option (as mentioned above).

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User Interfaces The Data Recovery Advisor is available from Enterprise Manager (EM) Database Control and Grid Control. When failures exist, there are several ways to access the Data Recovery Advisor. The following examples all begin on the Database Instance home page: • Availability tabbed page > Perform Recovery > Advise and Recover • Active Incidents link > on the Support Workbench “Problems” page: Checker Findings tabbed page > Launch Recovery Advisor • Database Instance Health > click the specific link, for example, ORA 1578 in the Incidents section > Support Workbench, Problems Detail page > Data Recovery Advisor • Database Instance Health > Related Links section: Support Workbench > Checker Findings tabbed page: Launch Recovery Advisor • Related Link: Advisor Central > Advisors tabbed page: Data Recovery Advisor • Related Link: Advisor Central > Checkers tabbed page: Details > Run Detail tabbed page: Launch Recovery Advisor You can also use it via the RMAN command-line. For example:

Data Recovery Advisor

1. Assess data failures.

Health Monitor

2. List failures by severity. 3. Advise on repair.

Data Recovery Advisor

4. Choose and execute repair. 5. Perform proactive checks.

DBA

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Data Recovery Advisor The automatic diagnostic workflow in Oracle Database 11g performs as follows. With the Data Recovery Advisor, you only need to initiate an advice and a repair. 1. The Health Monitor automatically executes checks and logs failures and their symptoms as “findings” into the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR). 2. The Data Recovery Advisor consolidates findings into failures. It lists the results of previously executed assessments with failure severity (critical or high). 3. When you ask for repair advice on a failure, the Data Recovery Advisor maps failures to automatic and manual repair options, checks basic feasibility, and presents you with the repair advice. 4. You can choose to manually execute a repair or request the Data Recovery Advisor to do it for you. 5. In addition to the automatic, primarily “reactive” checks of the Health Monitor and Data Recovery Advisor, Oracle recommends to additionally use the VALIDATE command as a “proactive” check.

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Reducing down time by eliminating confusion:

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Data Failures Data failures are detected by checks, which are diagnostic procedures that assess the health of the database or its components. Each check can diagnose one or more failures, which are mapped to a repair. Checks can be reactive or proactive. When an error occurs in the database, “reactive checks” are automatically executed. You can also initiate “proactive checks”, for example, by executing the VALIDATE DATABASE command. In Enterprise Manager, select Availability > Perform Recovery, or click the Perform Recovery button, if you find your database in a “down” or “mounted” state.

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Data Failures

Data Failure: Examples Not accessible components, for example: – Missing data files at the OS level – Incorrect access permissions – Offline tablespace, and so on

• •

• •

Physical corruptions, such as block checksum failures or invalid block header field values Logical corruptions, such as inconsistent dictionary, corrupt row piece, corrupt index entry, or corrupt transaction Inconsistencies, such as control file is older or newer than the data files and online redo logs I/O failures, such as a limit on the number of open files exceeded, channels inaccessible, network or I/O error Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Data Failure: Examples The Data Recovery Advisor can analyze failures and suggest repair options for issues, as outlined in the slide.

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RMAN Command

Action

LIST FAILURE

Lists previously executed failure assessment

ADVISE FAILURE

Displays recommended repair option

REPAIR FAILURE

Repairs and closes failures (after ADVISE in the same RMAN session)

CHANGE FAILURE

Changes or closes one or more failures

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Data Recovery Advisor: RMAN Command-Line Interface If you suspect or know that a database failure has occurred, then use the LIST FAILURE command to obtain information about these failures. You can list all or a subset of failures and restrict output in various ways. Failures are uniquely identified by failure numbers. Note that these numbers are not consecutive, so gaps between failure numbers have no significance. The ADVISE FAILURE command displays a recommended repair option for the specified failures. It prints a summary of the input failure and implicitly closes all open failures that are already fixed. The default behavior when no option is used is to advise on all the CRITICAL and HIGH priority failures that are recorded in ADR. The REPAIR FAILURE command is used after an ADVISE FAILURE command within the same RMAN session. By default, the command uses the single, recommended repair option of the last ADVISE FAILURE execution in the current session. If none exists, the REPAIR FAILURE command initiates an implicit ADVISE FAILURE command. After completing the repair, the command closes the failure. The CHANGE FAILURE command changes the failure priority or closes one or more failures. You can change a failure priority only for HIGH or LOW priorities. Open failures are closed implicitly when a failure is repaired. However, you can also explicitly close a failure.

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Data Recovery Advisor RMAN Command-Line Interface

The RMAN LIST FAILURE command lists previously executed failure assessment. • Including newly diagnosed failures • Removing closed failures (by default) Syntax: LIST FAILURE [ ALL | CRITICAL | HIGH | LOW | CLOSED | failnum[,failnum,…] ] [ EXCLUDE FAILURE failnum[,failnum,…] ] [ DETAIL ]

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Listing Data Failures The RMAN LIST FAILURE command lists failures. If the target instance uses a recovery catalog, it can be in STARTED mode, otherwise it must be in MOUNTED mode. The LIST FAILURE command does not initiate checks to diagnose new failures; rather, it lists the results of previously executed assessments. Repeatedly executing the LIST FAILURE command revalidates all existing failures. If the database diagnoses new ones (between command executions), they are displayed. If a user manually fixes failures, or if transient failures disappear, then the Data Recovery Advisor removes these failures from the LIST FAILURE output. The following is a description of the syntax: • failnum: Number of the failure to display repair options for • ALL: List failures of all priorities. • CRITICAL: List failures of CRITICAL priority and OPEN status. These failures require immediate attention, because they make the whole database unavailable (for example, a missing control file). • HIGH: List failures of HIGH priority and OPEN status. These failures make a database partly unavailable or unrecoverable; so they should be repaired quickly (for example, missing archived redo logs). • LOW: List failures of LOW priority and OPEN status. Failures of a low priority can wait until more important failures are fixed. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Listing Data Failures

Listing Data Failures (continued) • CLOSED: List only closed failures. • EXCLUDE FAILURE: Exclude the specified list of failure numbers from the list. • DETAIL: List failures by expanding the consolidated failure. For example, if there are multiple block corruptions in a file, the DETAIL option lists each one of them.

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See the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for details of the command syntax.

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Advising on Repair

• • • • •

Displays a summary of input failure list Includes a warning, if new failures appeared in ADR Displays a manual checklist Lists a single recommended repair option Generates a repair script (for automatic or manual repair) . . . Repair script: /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/hm/reco_2979 128860.hm RMAN>

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Advising on Repair The RMAN ADVISE FAILURE command displays a recommended repair option for the specified failures. The ADVISE FAILURE command prints a summary of the input failure. The command implicitly closes all open failures that are already fixed. The default behavior (when no option is used) is to advise on all the CRITICAL and HIGH priority failures that are recorded in Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR). If a new failure has been recorded in ADR since the last LIST FAILURE command, this command includes a WARNING before advising on all CRITICAL and HIGH failures. Two general repair options are implemented: no-data-loss and data-loss repairs. When the Data Recovery Advisor generates an automated repair option, it generates a script that shows you how RMAN plans to repair the failure. If you do not want the Data Recovery Advisor to automatically repair the failure, then you can use this script as a starting point for your manual repair. The operating system (OS) location of the script is printed at the end of the command output. You can examine this script, customize it (if needed), and also execute it manually if, for example, your audit trail requirements recommend such an action. Syntax ADVISE FAILURE [ ALL | CRITICAL | HIGH | LOW | failnum[,failnum,…] ] [ EXCLUDE FAILURE failnum [,failnum,…] ] THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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The RMAN ADVISE FAILURE command:

The RMAN REPAIR FAILURE command: • Follows the ADVISE FAILURE command • •

Repairs the specified failure Closes the repaired failure

Syntax: REPAIR FAILURE [USING ADVISE OPTION integer] [ { {NOPROMPT | PREVIEW}}...]

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Executing Repairs This command should be used after an ADVISE FAILURE command in the same RMAN session. By default (with no option), the command uses the single, recommended repair option of the last ADVISE FAILURE execution in the current session. If none exists, the REPAIR FAILURE command initiates an implicit ADVISE FAILURE command. With USING ADVISE OPTION integer, you specify your desired repair option by its option number (from the ADVISE FAILURE command ); this is not the failure number. By default, you are asked to confirm the command execution because you may be requesting substantial changes that take time to complete. During the execution of a repair, the output of the command indicates what phase of the repair is being executed. After completing the repair, the command closes the failure. You cannot run multiple concurrent repair sessions. However, concurrent REPAIR … PREVIEW sessions are allowed. • PREVIEW means: Do not execute the repairs; instead, display the previously generated RMAN script with all repair actions and comments. • NOPROMPT means: Do not ask for confirmation.

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Executing Repairs

Classifying (and Closing) Failures

• Closes one or more failures Example: RMAN> change failure 5 priority low; List of Database Failures ========================= Failure ID Priority Status Time Detected Summary ---------- -------- --------- ------------- ------5 HIGH OPEN 20-DEC-06 one or more datafiles are missing Do you really want to change the above failures (enter YES or NO)? yes changed 1 failures to LOW priority

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Classifying (and Closing) Failures The CHANGE FAILURE command is used to change the failure priority or close one or more failures. Syntax CHANGE FAILURE { ALL | CRITICAL | HIGH | LOW | failnum[,failnum,…] } [ EXCLUDE FAILURE failnum[,failnum,…] ] { PRIORITY {CRITICAL | HIGH | LOW} | CLOSE } – change status of the failure(s) to closed [ NOPROMPT ] – do not ask user for a confirmation

A failure priority can be changed only from HIGH to LOW and from LOW to HIGH. It is an error to change the priority level of CRITICAL. (One reason why you may want to change a failure from HIGH to LOW is to avoid seeing it on the default output list of the LIST FAILURE command. For example, if a block corruption has HIGH priority, you may want to temporarily change it to LOW if the block is in a little-used tablespace.) Open failures are closed implicitly when a failure is repaired. However, you can also explicitly close a failure. This involves a reevaluation of all other open failures, because some of them may become irrelevant as the result of the closure of the failure. By default, the command asks the user to confirm a requested change. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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The RMAN CHANGE FAILURE command: • Changes the failure priority (except for CRITICAL)

Querying V$ views: • V$IR_FAILURE: List of all failures, including closed ones (result of the LIST FAILURE command) • V$IR_MANUAL_CHECKLIST: List of manual advice (result of the ADVISE FAILURE command) • V$IR_REPAIR: List of repairs (result of the ADVISE FAILURE command) • V$IR_FAILURE_SET: Cross-reference of failure and advice identifiers

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Data Recovery Advisor Views See the Oracle Database Reference for details of the dynamic data dictionary views that the Data Recovery Advisor uses.

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Data Recovery Advisor Views

Invoking proactive health check of the database and its components: • Health Monitor or RMAN VALIDATE DATABASE command • •

Checking for logical and physical corruption Findings logged in the ADR

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Best Practice: Proactive Checks For very important databases, you may want to execute additional proactive checks (possibly daily during low peak interval periods). You can schedule periodic health checks through the Health Monitor or by using the RMAN VALIDATE command. In general, when a reactive check detects failure(s) in a database component, you may want to execute a more complete check of the affected component. The RMAN VALIDATE DATABASE command is used to invoke health checks for the database and its components. It extends the existing VALIDATE BACKUPSET command. Any problem detected during validation is displayed to you. Problems initiate the execution of a failure assessment. If a failure is detected, it is logged into ADR as a finding. You can use the LIST FAILURE command to view all failures recorded in the repository. The VALIDATE command supports validation of individual backup sets and data blocks. In a physical corruption, the database does not recognize the block at all. In a logical corruption, the contents of the block are logically inconsistent. By default, the VALIDATE command checks for physical corruption only. You can specify CHECK LOGICAL to check for logical corruption as well. Block corruptions can be divided into interblock corruption and intrablock corruption. In intrablock corruption, the corruption occurs within the block itself and can be either physical or logical corruption. In interblock corruption, the corruption occurs between blocks and can be only logical corruption. The VALIDATE command checks for intrablock corruptions only. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Best Practice: Proactive Checks

What Is Block Corruption?

Data Recovery Ad. Block Corruption ADR Health Monitor

Whenever a block is read or written, a consistency check is performed. – Block version – DBA (data block address) value in cache as compared to the DBA value in the block buffer – Block-checksum, if enabled



A corrupt block is identified as being one of the following: – Media corrupt – Logically (or software) corrupt

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What Is Block Corruption? A corrupted data block is a block that is not in a recognized Oracle format, or whose contents are not internally consistent. Typically, corruptions are caused by faulty hardware or operating system problems. The Oracle database identifies corrupt blocks as either “logically corrupt” or “media corrupt.” If it is logically corrupt, there is an Oracle internal error. Logically corrupt blocks are marked corrupt by the Oracle database after it detects the inconsistency. If it is media corrupt, the block format is not correct; the information in the block does not make any sense after being read from disk. As you just learned, a number of data failures and corruptions can be repaired with the Data Recovery Advisor. Now you learn about a manual way to diagnose and repair corruptions. You can repair a media corrupt block by recovering the block or dropping the database object that contains the corrupt block, or both. If media corruption is due to faulty hardware, the problem will not be completely resolved until the hardware fault is corrected.

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>

Block Corruption Symptoms: ORA-01578

• • • •

Is generated when a corrupted data block is found Always returns the relative file number and block number Is returned to the session that issued the query being performed when the corruption was discovered Appears in the alert.log file

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Block Corruption Symptoms: ORA-01578 Usually, the ORA-01578 error is the result of a hardware problem. If the ORA-01578 error is always returned with the same arguments, it is most likely a media corrupt block. If the arguments change each time, there may be a hardware problem, and you should have the memory and page space checked, and the I/O subsystem checked for bad controllers. Note: ORA-01578 returns the relative file number, but the accompanying ORA-01110 error displays the absolute file number.

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The error ORA-01578: "ORACLE data block corrupted (file # %s, block # %s)":

• • • • •

Check the alert log and operating system log file. Use available diagnostic tools to find out the type of corruption. Determine whether the error persists by running checks multiple times. Recover data from the corrupted object if necessary. Resolve any hardware issues: – Memory boards – Disk controllers – Disks



Recover or restore data from the corrupt object if necessary.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

How to Handle Corruption Always try to find out whether the error is permanent. Run the ANALYZE command multiple times or, if possible, perform a shutdown and a startup and try again to perform the operation that failed earlier. Find out whether there are more corruptions. If you encounter one, there may be other corrupted blocks, as well. Hardware failures should be addressed immediately. When you encounter hardware problems, the vendor should be contacted and the machine should be checked and fixed before continuing. A full hardware diagnostics session should be run. Many types of hardware failures are possible: • Faulty I/O hardware or firmware • Operating system I/O or caching problem • Memory or paging problems • Disk repair utilities

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How to Handle Corruption

Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption

... Detect I/O storage, disk corruption

... Detect nonpersistent writes on physical standby

...

New Specify defaults for corruption detection

EM > Server > Initialization Parameters Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption You can use the DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter for easy manageability. It affects the default values of the following parameters: • DB_BLOCK_CHECKING, which initiates checking of database blocks. This check can often prevent memory and data corruption. (Default: FALSE, recommended: FULL) • DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM, which initiates the calculation and storage of a checksum in the cache header of every data block when writing it to disk. Checksums assist in detecting corruption caused by underlying disks, storage systems, or I/O systems. (Default: TYPICAL, recommended: TYPICAL) • DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT, which initiates checking for “lost writes.” Data block lost writes occur on a physical standby database, when the I/O subsystem signals the completion of a block write, which has not yet been completely written in persistent storage. Of course, the write operation has been completed on the primary database. (Default: TYPICAL, recommended: TYPICAL) If you set any of these parameters explicitly, your values remain in effect. The DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter (which is new in Oracle Database 11g) changes only the default values for these parameters.

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Prevent memory and data corruption

DB_ULTRA_SAFE

OFF

DATA_ONLY DATA_AND_INDEX

DB_BLOCK_CHECKING

OFF or FALSE

MEDIUM

FULL or TRUE

DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM

TYPICAL

FULL

FULL

DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT

TYPICAL

TYPICAL

TYPICAL

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption (continued) Depending on your system’s tolerance for block corruption, you can intensify the checking for block corruption. Enabling the DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter (default: OFF) results in increased system overhead because of these more intensive checks. The amount of overhead is related to the number of blocks changed per second, so it cannot be easily quantified. For a “high-update” application, you can expect a significant increase in CPU, likely in the ten-to-twenty percent range, but possibly higher. This overhead can be alleviated by allocating additional CPUs. • When the DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter is set to DATA_ONLY, the DB_BLOCK_CHECKING parameter is set to MEDIUM. This checks that data in a block are logically self-consistent. Basic block header checks are performed after block contents change in memory (for example, after UPDATE or INSERT commands, on-disk reads, or interinstance block transfers in Oracle RAC). This level of checks includes semantic block checking for all non-index-organized table blocks. • When the DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter is set to DATA_AND_INDEX, the DB_BLOCK_CHECKING parameter is set to FULL. In addition to the preceding checks, semantic checks are executed for index blocks (that is, blocks of subordinate objects that can actually be dropped and reconstructed when faced with corruption). • When the DB_ULTRA_SAFE parameter is set to DATA_ONLY or DATA_AND_INDEX, the DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM parameter is set to FULL and the DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT parameter is set to TYPICAL. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption

Block media recovery: • Lowers the mean time to recover (MTTR) • Increases availability during media recovery – The data file remains online during recovery – Only blocks being recovered are inaccessible



Is invoked using the RMAN RECOVER...BLOCK command – Restores blocks using flashback logs and full or level 0 backups – Media recovery is performed using redo logs



The V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION view displays blocks marked corrupt

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Block Media Recovery In most cases, the database marks a block as media corrupt and then writes it to disk when the corruption is first encountered. No subsequent read of the block will be successful until the block is recovered. You can only perform block recovery on blocks that are marked corrupt or fail a corruption check. Block media recovery is performed using the RMAN RECOVER...BLOCK command. By default, RMAN searches the flashback logs for good copies of the blocks, and then searches for the blocks in full or level 0 incremental backups. When RMAN finds good copies, it restores them and performs media recovery on the blocks. Block media recovery can only use redo logs for media recovery, not incremental backups. The V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION view displays blocks marked corrupt by database components such as RMAN commands, ANALYZE, dbv, SQL queries, and so on. The following types of corruption result in rows added to this view: • Physical/Media corruption: The database does not recognize the block: the checksum is invalid, the block contains all zeros, or the block header is fractured. Physical corruption checking is enabled by default. • Logical corruption: The block has a valid checksum, the header and footer match, but the contents are inconsistent. Block media recovery cannot repair logical block corruption. Logical corruption checking is disabled by default. You can turn it on by specifying the CHECK LOGICAL option of the BACKUP, RESTORE, RECOVER, and VALIDATE commands. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Block Media Recovery

• •

The target database must be in ARCHIVELOG mode. The backups of the data files containing the corrupt blocks must be full or level 0 backups. – Proxy copies must be restored to a non-default location before they can be used.

• •

RMAN can use only archived redo logs for the recovery. The corrupted data block can be restored from Flashback Logs if available.

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Prerequisites for Block Media Recovery The following prerequisites apply to the RECOVER ... BLOCK command: • The target database must run in ARCHIVELOG mode and be open or mounted with a current control file. • The backups of the data files containing the corrupt blocks must be full or level 0 backups and not proxy copies. If only proxy copy backups exist, then you can restore them to a non-default location on disk, in which case RMAN considers them data file copies and searches them for blocks during block media recovery. • RMAN can use only archived redo logs for the recovery. RMAN cannot use level 1 incremental backups. Block media recovery cannot survive a missing or inaccessible archived redo log, although it can sometimes survive missing redo records. • Flashback Database must be enabled on the target database for RMAN to search the flashback logs for good copies of corrupt blocks. If flashback logging is enabled and contains older, uncorrupted versions of the corrupt blocks, then RMAN can use these blocks, possibly speeding up the recovery.

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Prerequisites for Block Media Recovery

The RECOVER...BLOCK Command

• • •

Identifies the backups containing the blocks to recover Reads the backups and accumulates requested blocks into in-memory buffers Manages the block media recovery session by reading the archive logs from backup if necessary

RECOVER DATAFILE 6 BLOCK 3; Recover a single block RECOVER DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 43 DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 79 DATAFILE 6 BLOCK 183; RECOVER CORRUPTION LIST;

Recover multiple blocks in multiple data files

Recover all blocks logged in V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION

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Recovering Individual Blocks Before block recovery can take place, you must identify the corrupt blocks. Typically, block corruption is reported in the following locations: • Results of the LIST FAILURE, VALIDATE, or BACKUP ... VALIDATE command • The V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION view • Error messages in standard output • The alert log and user trace files (identified in the V$DIAG_INFO view) • Results of the SQL ANALYZE TABLE and ANALYZE INDEX commands • Results of the DBVERIFY utility For example, you may discover the following messages in a user trace file: ORA-01578: ORA-01110: ORA-01578: ORA-01110:

ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 7, block # 3) data file 7: '/oracle/oradata/orcl/tools01.dbf' ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 2, block # 235) data file 2: '/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf'

One the blocks have been identified, run the RECOVER ... BLOCK command at the RMAN prompt, specifying the file and block numbers for the corrupted blocks. RECOVER DATAFILE 7 BLOCK 3 DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 235; THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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The RMAN RECOVER...BLOCK command:

Automatic Diagnostic Workflow

.

Automatic Diagnostic Repository

DBA

1

Auto-incident creation First failure capture

2

Alert DBA Targeted health checks Assisted SR filling

No

Known bug?

DBA

Yes

4

EM Support Workbench: Package incident info Data repair

EM Support Workbench: Apply patch/Data repair

3

DBA

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Automatic Diagnostic Workflow An always-on, in-memory tracing facility enables database components to capture diagnostic data upon first failure for critical errors. A special repository, called Automatic Diagnostic Repository, is automatically maintained to hold diagnostic information about critical error events. This information can be used to create incident packages to be sent to Oracle Support Services for investigation. Here is a typical workflow for a diagnostic session: 1. Incident causes an alert to be raised in Enterprise Manager (EM). 2. The DBA can view the alert via the EM Alert page. 3. The DBA can drill down to incident and problem details. 4. The DBA or Oracle Support Services can decide or ask for that information to be packaged and sent to Oracle Support Services via My Oracle Support. The DBA can add files to the data to be packaged automatically.

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Critical error

Data Recovery Ad. Block Corruption > ADR Health Monitor

Automatic Diagnostic Repository DIAGNOSTIC_DEST BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST CORE_DUMP_DEST USER_DUMP_DEST

$ORACLE_BASE

$ORACLE_HOME/log

ADR Base diag rdbms DB Name ADR Home

alert

cdump incpkg incident

incdir_1

ADRCI

log.xml

metadata

SID



hm

trace

(others)

incdir_n

alert_SID.log

V$DIAG_INFO

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Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) The ADR is a file-based repository for database diagnostic data such as traces, incident dumps and packages, the alert log, Health Monitor reports, core dumps, and more. It has a unified directory structure across multiple instances and multiple products stored outside of any database. It is, therefore, available for problem diagnosis when the database is down. Beginning with Oracle Database 11g R1, the database, Automatic Storage Management (ASM), Cluster Ready Services (CRS), and other Oracle products or components store all diagnostic data in the ADR. Each instance of each product stores diagnostic data underneath its own ADR home directory. For example, in a Real Application Clusters environment with shared storage and ASM, each database instance and each ASM instance have a home directory within the ADR. ADR’s unified directory structure, consistent diagnostic data formats across products and instances, and a unified set of tools enable customers and Oracle Support to correlate and analyze diagnostic data across multiple instances. The ADR root directory is known as the ADR base. Its location is set by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST initialization parameter. If this parameter is omitted or left null, the database sets DIAGNOSTIC_DEST upon startup as follows: If environment variable ORACLE_BASE is set, DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is set to $ORACLE_BASE. If environment variable ORACLE_BASE is not set, DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is set to $ORACLE_HOME/log. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Support Workbench

• •

ADRCI provides interaction with ADR from an operating system prompt. Using ADRCI, you can view diagnostic data within the Automatic Diagnostic Repository.

$ adrci ADRCI: Release 11.1.0.5.0 - On Sat Jul 7 08:01:40 2007 Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved. ADR base = "/u01/app/oracle" ADRCI> show incident ADR Home = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/log/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl: ************************************************************************** INCIDENT_ID PROBLEM_KEY CREATE_TIME ----------- ------------------------------------ -----------------------1681 ORA-600_dbgris01:1,_addr=0xa9876541 17-JAN-07 09.17.44.843125… 1682 ORA-600_dbgris01:12,_addr=0xa9876542 18-JAN-07 09.18.59.434775… 2 incident info records fetched

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The ADR Command-Line Tool (ADRCI) ADRCI is a command-line tool that is part of the database fault diagnosability infrastructure. ADRCI enables you to: • View diagnostic data within the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) • Package incident and problem information into a zip file for transmission to Oracle Support ADRCI can be used in interactive mode or within scripts. In addition, ADRCI can execute scripts of ADRCI commands in the same way that SQL*Plus executes scripts of SQL and PL/SQL commands. There is no need to log in to ADRCI, because the data in the ADR is not intended to be secure. ADR data is secured only by operating system permissions on the ADR directories. The easiest way to package and otherwise manage diagnostic data is with the Support Workbench of Enterprise Manager (which assists with the resolution of database errors, as well as ASM errors). ADRCI provides a command-line alternative to most of the functionality of Support Workbench, and adds capabilities such as listing and querying trace files. The example in the slide shows you an ADRCI session where you are listing all open incidents stored in ADR. Note: For more information about ADRCI and the Support Workbench, refer to the Oracle Database Utilities guide.

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The ADR Command-Line Tool (ADRCI)

The V$DIAG_INFO View

NAME ------------------Diag Enabled ADR Base ADR Home Diag Trace Diag Alert Diag Incident Diag Cdump Health Monitor Default Trace File Active Problem Count Active Incident Count

VALUE ------------------------------------------------TRUE /u01/app/oracle /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/trace /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/alert /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/incident /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/cdump /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl/hm /u01/app/oracle/diag/.../trace/orcl_ora_11424.trc 3 8

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The V$DIAG_INFO View The V$DIAG_INFO view lists all important ADR locations: • ADR Base: Path of the ADR base • ADR Home: Path of the ADR home for the current database instance • Diag Trace: Location of the text alert log and background/foreground process trace files • Diag Alert: Location of an XML version of the alert log • Diag Incident: Incident logs are written here. • Diag Cdump: Diagnostic core files are written to this directory. • Health Monitor: Location of logs from Health Monitor runs • Default Trace File: Path to the trace file for your session. SQL trace files are written here.

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SQL> SELECT * FROM V$DIAG_INFO;

Diag Data

Previous Location

ADR Location

Foreground process traces

USER_DUMP_DEST

ADR_HOME/trace

Background process traces

BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST

ADR_HOME/trace

Alert log data

BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST

ADR_HOME/alert ADR_HOME/trace

Core dumps

CORE_DUMP_DEST

ADR_HOME/cdump

Incident dumps USER|BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST ADR_HOME/incident/incdir_ n

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Location for Diagnostic Traces The table in the slide compares the different classes of trace data and dumps that reside both in Oracle Database 10g and Oracle Database 11g. With Oracle Database 11g, there is no distinction between foreground and background traces files. Both types of files go into the ADR_HOME/trace directory. All nonincident traces are stored inside the trace subdirectory. This is the main difference compared with previous releases where critical error information is dumped into the corresponding process trace files instead of incident dumps. Incident dumps are placed in files separated from the normal process trace files starting with Oracle Database 11g. The main difference between a trace and a dump is that a trace is more of a continuous output such as when SQL tracing is turned on, and a dump is a one-time output in response to an event such as an incident. Also, a core is a binary memory dump that is port specific. Note: In the slide, ADR_HOME represents the path /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/orcl/orcl, assuming an instance name of orcl. However, there is no official environment variable called ADR_HOME.

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Location for Diagnostic Traces

Data Recovery Ad. Block Corruption ADR > Health Monitor

V$HM_RUN DBMS_HM

Critical error

Re ac ti v e

al HM nu S_ M Ma DB or M E

DBA

ADRCI

EM

hm (reports)

ADR

Health Monitor

V$HM_CHECK Logical Block Check Table Row Check Transaction Check Redo Check

Undo Segment Check Data Block Check Table Check Database Cross Check

Table-Index Row Mismatch Database Dictionary Check Table-Index Cross Check

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Health Monitor: Overview The Oracle database includes a framework called Health Monitor for running diagnostic checks on various components of the database. Health Monitor checks examine various components of the database, including files, memory, transaction integrity, metadata, and process usage. These checks generate reports of their findings as well as recommendations for resolving problems. The fault diagnosability infrastructure can run Health Monitor checks automatically in response to critical errors or the DBA, can manually run Health Monitor health checks by using either the DBMS_HM PL/SQL package or the Enterprise Manager interface. For a complete description of all possible checks that Health Monitor can run, look at V$HM_CHECK. These health checks fall into one of two categories: • DB-online: These checks can be run while the database is open (that is, in OPEN mode). • DB-offline: In addition to being “runnable” while the database is open, these checks can also be run when the instance is available and the database itself is closed (NOMOUNT mode). After a checker has run, it generates a report containing information about the checker’s findings, including the priorities (low, high, or critical), descriptions of the findings and their consequences, and basic statistics about the execution. Health Monitor generates reports in XML and stores the reports in ADR. You can view these reports using either V$HM_RUN, DBMS_HM, ADRCI, or Enterprise Manager. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Health Monitor: Overview

Running Health Checks Manually: PL/SQL Example

SQL> set long 100000 SQL> select dbms_hm.get_run_report('mycheck') from dual; DBMS_HM.GET_RUN_REPORT('mycheck') ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HM Report: mycheck Database Dictionary Check 21mycheck MANUALCOMPLETED … TABLE_NAME=tab$ … Dictionary Inconsistency22 FAILUREOPEN CRITICAL … … …invalid column number 7 on Object tab$ Failed Damaged … Object SH.JFVTEST is referenced …

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Running Health Checks Manually: PL/SQL Example You can use the DBMS_HM.RUN_CHECK procedure for running a health check. To call RUN_CHECK, supply the name of the check found in V$HM_CHECK, the name for the run (this is just a label used to retrieve reports later), and the corresponding set of input parameters for controlling its execution. You can view these parameters using the V$HM_CHECK_PARAM. In the slide example, you want to run a Database Dictionary Check for TAB$ table, considered an important core dictionary object. You call this run MYCHECK, and you do not want to set any timeout for this check. When executed, you execute the DBMS_HM.GET_RUN_REPORT function to get the report extracted from V$HM_RUN, V$HM_FINDING, and V$HM_RECOMMENDATION. The output clearly shows you that a critical error was found in TAB$. This table contains an entry for a table with an invalid number of columns. Furthermore, the report gives you the name of the damaged table in TAB$. When you call the GET_RUN_REPORT function, it generates the XML report file in the HM directory of your ADR. In the example, the file is called HMREPORT_mycheck.hm. Note: Refer to the Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information about DBMS_HM.

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SQL> exec dbms_hm.run_check('Database Dictionary Check', 'mycheck',0,'TABLE_NAME=tab$');

adrci>>show hm_run … ---------------------------------------------------------RUN_ID 11081 RUN_NAME HM_RUN_11081 CHECK_NAME Database Cross Check NAME_ID 2 MODE 2 START_TIME 2007-04-13 03:20:31.161396 -07:00 RESUME_TIME END_TIME 2007-04-13 03:20:37.903984 -07:00 MODIFIED_TIME 2007-04-17 01:16:37.106344 -07:00 TIMEOUT 0 FLAGS 0 STATUS 5 SRC_INCIDENT_ID 0 NUM_INCIDENTS 0 ERR_NUMBER 0 REPORT_FILE … adrci>>create report hm_run HM_RUN_11081 Adrci>>show report hm_run HM_RUN_11081 …

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Viewing HM Reports Using the ADRCI Utility You can create and view Health Monitor checker reports using the ADRCI utility. To do that, ensure that operating system environment variables such as ORACLE_HOME are set properly, and then enter the following command at the operating system command prompt: adrci. The utility starts and displays its prompt as shown in the slide. Optionally, you can change the current ADR home. Use the SHOW HOMES command to list all ADR homes, and the SET HOMEPATH command to change the current ADR home. You can then enter the SHOW HM_RUN command to list all the checker runs registered in the ADR repository and visible from V$HM_RUN. Locate the checker run for which you want to create a report and note the checker run name using the corresponding RUN_NAME field. The REPORT_FILE field contains a file name if a report already exists for this checker run. Otherwise, you can generate the report using the CREATE REPORT HM_RUN command as shown in the slide. To view the report, use the SHOW REPORT HM_RUN command.

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Viewing HM Reports Using the ADRCI Utility

The Data Recovery Advisor handles both cases: when you cannot start up the database (because some required database files are missing, inconsistent, or corrupted) and when file corruptions are discovered during run time. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 1

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Quiz

After executing the ADVISE FAILURE command, the repair is automatically executed. So, it is no longer under your control. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 2

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Quiz

The ADR resides in the database. Therefore, an instance must be mounted for incident analysis. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 2

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Quiz

Which of the following checks can the Health Monitor perform? 1. Intuitive commit check 2. Memory check 3. Metadata check 4. Redo check 5. Transaction check 6. User alertness check 7. Undo segment check

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Answer: 2, 3, 4, 5, 7

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Quiz

Summary

– Use the new RMAN data repair commands to: — — —

List failures Receive a repair advice Repair failures

– Perform proactive failure checks



Handle block corruption: – Verifying block integrity in real time – Performing block media recovery

• •

Set up Automatic Diagnostic Repository Run health checks

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In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Detect and repair database corruption:

This practice covers the following topics: • Discovering corruptions • Repairing corruptions

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Practice 9 Overview: Diagnosing the Database

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Using Flashback Technology I

After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Describe Flashback technology • Perform Flashback Query • Use Flashback Version Query • Enable row movement on a table • Perform Flashback Table operations • Use Flashback Transaction Query • Use Flashback Transaction

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Objectives

Flashback > - Overview - Query - Table - Transaction

Object Level

Scenario Examples

Database Table

Transaction

Flashback Technology

Depends On

Affects Data

Truncate table; Undesired Database multitable changes made

Flashback logs

TRUE

Drop table

Drop

Recycle bin

TRUE

Update with the wrong WHERE clause

Table

Undo data

TRUE

Compare current data with data from the past

Query

Undo data

FALSE

Compare versions of a row

Version

Undo data

FALSE

Keep historical transaction data

Data Archive

Undo data

TRUE

Investigate and back out suspect transactions

Transaction

Undo/redo from Archive logs

TRUE

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Flashback Technology You can use Flashback technology when a logical corruption occurs in the Oracle database and you need to recover data quickly and easily. As with human errors, it is difficult to identify the objects and rows that are affected by an erroneous transaction. With Flashback technology, you can diagnose how errors are introduced into the database, and then repair the damage. You can view the transactions that have contributed to specific row modifications, view the entire set of versions of a given row during a specific time period, or just view data as it appeared at a specific time in the past. The table in the slide shows typical uses of Flashback technology. Flashback Database depends on the flashback logs to perform flashback. Flashback Drop uses the recycle bin. All other techniques use undo data. Not all flashback features modify the database. Some are simply methods to query other versions of data; these are tools to investigate a problem and aid in recovery. The results of flashback queries help you do one of two things: • Determine the type of database-modifying flashback operation to perform to fix the problem. • Feed the result set of these queries into an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement that enables you to easily repair the erroneous data. Flashback Data Archive enables you to use the preceding logical flashback features to access data from far back in the past. THESE eKIT MATERIALS ARE FOR YOUR USE IN THIS CLASSROOM ONLY. COPYING eKIT MATERIALS FROM THIS COMPUTER IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED

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Flashback Technology

Original data in buffer cache

Undo “old” data in undo tablespace DML operations

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Transactions and Undo When a transaction starts, it is assigned to an undo segment. Throughout the life of the transaction, when data is changed, the original “old” values are copied into the undo segment. You can see which transactions are assigned to which undo segments by checking the V$TRANSACTION view. Undo segments are specialized segments that are automatically created by the instance as needed to support transactions. Like all segments, undo segments are made up of extents, which, in turn, consist of data blocks. Undo segments automatically grow and shrink as needed, acting as a circular storage buffer for their assigned transactions. When transactions fill the blocks in their current undo segment extent, they are assigned another block in the same extent. If no free blocks remain in that extent, the transaction acquires a block from the next extent in the segment. If all extents are in use, the transaction either wraps around back into the first extent or requests that a new extent be allocated to the undo segment. The diagram in the slide shows on the left a table icon with original data arriving from a DML operation. The original data is kept in the buffer cache (if not aged out) and then written to the undo tablespace (shown in circular form on the right). Note: Parallel DML operations can actually cause a transaction to use more than one undo segment. To learn more about parallel DML execution, see the Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide.

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Transactions and Undo

Retention guarantee: 15 minutes Undo data in undo tablespace

SELECT statements running 15 minutes or less are always satisfied.

A transaction that generates more undo than what there is space for will fail.

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Guaranteeing Undo Retention The default undo behavior is to overwrite committed transactions that have not yet expired rather than to allow an active transaction to fail because of lack of undo space. In case of conflict, transactions have precedence over queries. This behavior can be changed by guaranteeing retention. With guaranteed retention, undo retention settings are enforced even if they cause transactions to fail. (So in case of conflict, queries have precedence over transactions.) RETENTION GUARANTEE is a tablespace attribute rather than an initialization parameter. This attribute can be changed using either SQL command-line statements or Enterprise Manager. The syntax to change an undo tablespace to guarantee retention is: SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE undotbs1 RETENTION GUARANTEE;

To return a guaranteed undo tablespace to its normal setting, use the following command: SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE undotbs1 RETENTION NOGUARANTEE;

You can set Undo Retention Guarantee in Enterprise Manager. Navigate to the Automatic Undo Management page. Click the current setting for Retention Guarantee (General/Undo Retention Settings) to modify it.

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Guaranteeing Undo Retention

• • •

Creating an undo tablespace Enabling Automatic Undo Management Specifying versus guaranteeing undo retention Default database initialization parameters: – UNDO_MANAGEMENT='AUTO' – UNDO_TABLESPACE='UNDOTBS1' – UNDO_RETENTION=900

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Preparing Your Database for Flashback To enable flashback features for an application, you must perform these tasks: • Create an undo tablespace with enough space to keep the required data for flashback operations. The more often users update the data, the more space is required. The database administrator usually calculates the space requirement. If you are uncertain about your space requirements, you can start with an automatically extensible undo tablespace, observe it through one business cycle (for example, 1 or 2 days), collect undo block information with the V$UNDO_STAT view, calculate your space requirements, and use them to create an appropriately sized fixed undo tablespace. (The calculation formula is in the Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide.) • By default, Automatic Undo Management is enabled. If needed, enable Automatic Undo Management, as explained in the Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide. • For a fixed-size undo tablespace, the Oracle database automatically tunes the system to give the undo tablespace the best possible undo retention. • For an automatically extensible undo tablespace (default), the Oracle database retains undo data to satisfy at a minimum, the retention periods needed by the longest-running query and the threshold of undo retention, specified by the UNDO_RETENTION parameter.

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Preparing Your Database for Flashback

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Preparing Your Database for Flashback (continued) You can query V$UNDOSTAT.TUNED_UNDORETENTION to determine the amount of time for which undo is retained for the current undo tablespace. Setting the UNDO_RETENTION parameter does not guarantee, that unexpired undo data is not overwritten. If the system needs more space, the Oracle database can overwrite unexpired undo with more recently generated undo data. • Specify the RETENTION GUARANTEE clause for the undo tablespace to ensure that unexpired undo data is not discarded. • Grant flashback privileges to users, roles, or applications that need to use flashback features. To satisfy long retention requirements, create a Flashback Data Archive.

Using Flashback Technology to Query Data •

Flashback - Overview > - Query - Table - Transaction

Flashback Query



Flashback Version Query – See all versions of a row between two times. – See the transactions that changed the row.



Flashback Transaction Query – See all changes made by a transaction.

11:00

11:10

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Using Flashback Technology to Query Data Flashback technology provides the capability to query past versions of schema objects, query historical data, and perform change analysis. Every transaction logically generates a new version of the database. With Flashback technology, you can navigate through these versions to find an error and its cause: • Flashback Query: Query all data as it existed at a specific point in time. • Flashback Version Query: See all versions of rows between two times and the transactions that changed the row. • Flashback Transaction Query: See all changes made by a transaction and, if needed, roll back a transaction with “undo” SQL commands.

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– Query all data at a specified point in time.

Flashback Query

employees

Unwanted updates

employees

T1

T2

SELECT employee_id, salary FROM employees AS OF TIMESTAMP WHERE employee_id = 200

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Flashback Query With the Flashback Query feature, you can perform queries as of a certain time. By using the AS OF clause of the SELECT statement, you can specify the time stamp for which to view the data. This is useful for analyzing a data discrepancy. Note: TIMESTAMP and SCN are valid options for the AS OF clause.

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Use to query all data at a specified point in time.

employees

employees

salary = 4,400

salary = 4,840

11:00

employees salary = 4,400

11:10

UPDATE employees SET salary = (SELECT salary FROM employees AS OF TIMESTAMP TO_TIMESTAMP ('2005-05-04 11:00:00', 'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') WHERE employee_id = 200) WHERE employee_id = 200

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Flashback Query: Example If a raise has been erroneously given to a particular employee recently, you can update the salary again, assigning the salary provided by a subquery that returns the flashed-back value.

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Flashback Query: Example

Flashback Version Query

Tx1 employees

Tx2 employees

employees

200

t1

t2

SELECT versions_xid, salary FROM employees VERSIONS BETWEEN TIMESTAMP and WHERE employee_id = 200;

Tx0

Tx1

Tx2

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Version Query With Flashback Query, you can perform queries on the database as of a certain time span or range of user-specified system change numbers (SCNs). The Flashback Version Query feature enables you to use the VERSIONS clause to retrieve all the versions of the rows that exist between two points in time or two SCNs. The rows returned by Flashback Version Query represent a history of changes for the rows across transactions. Flashback Version Query retrieves only committed occurrences of the rows. Uncommitted row versions within a transaction are not shown. The rows returned also include deleted and subsequently reinserted versions of the rows. You can use Flashback Version Query to retrieve row history. It provides you with a way to audit the rows of a table and retrieve information about the transactions that affected the rows. You can then use the returned transaction identifier to perform transaction mining by using LogMiner or to perform a Flashback Transaction Query, as described later in this lesson. Note: VERSIONS_XID is a pseudocolumn that returns the transaction identifier of the corresponding version of a row.

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Tx0

Flashback Version Query: Considerations The VERSIONS clause cannot be used to query: – – – –

External tables Temporary tables Fixed tables Views



The VERSIONS clause cannot span DDL commands.



Segment shrink operations are filtered out.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Version Query: Considerations The VERSIONS clause cannot be used to query the following types of tables: • External tables • Temporary tables • Fixed tables You cannot use the VERSIONS clause to query a view. However, a view definition can use the VERSIONS clause. The VERSIONS clause in a SELECT statement cannot produce versions of rows across the DDL statements that change the structure of the corresponding tables. This means that the query stops producing rows after it reaches a time in the past when the table structure was changed. Certain maintenance operations, such as a segment shrink, may move table rows across blocks. In this case, the version query filters out such phantom versions because the row data remains the same.

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Flashback Query compares current data with data from the past. To do so, it uses both undo and redo data. 1. True 2. False

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Answer: 2

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Quiz

Select the correct statement: 1. Flashback Version Query uses undo data and modifies data. 2. Flashback Version Query uses undo data and does not modify data. 3. Flashback Version Query uses both undo and redo data.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Answer: 2

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Quiz

>

• • •

Flashback Table recovers tables to a specific point in time. Flashback Table is an in-place operation. The database stays online.

Erroneous DMLs

User

Flashed back tables

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Table Overview Using Flashback Table, you can recover a set of tables to a specific point in time without having to perform traditional point-in-time recovery operations. A Flashback Table operation is done in-place, while the database is online, by rolling back only the changes that are made to the given tables and their dependent objects. A Flashback Table statement is executed as a single transaction. All tables must be flashed back successfully, or the entire transaction is rolled back. Note: You can use Flashback Versions Query and Flashback Transaction Query to determine the appropriate flashback time.

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Flashback Table: Overview

Flashback - Overview - Query - Table - Transaction

• • • • •

Using Flashback Table, you can recover a table or tables to a specific point in time without restoring a backup. Data is retrieved from the undo tablespace to perform a Flashback Table operation. You require the FLASHBACK ANY TABLE or the FLASHBACK object privilege on the specific table. SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and ALTER privileges on the table to be flashed back are required. You must enable row movement on the table that you are performing the flashback operation on.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Table With Flashback Table, you can recover a table or tables to a specific point in time without restoring a backup. When you use this feature, the data in tables and their associated objects (indexes, constraints, triggers, and so on) is restored. The data used to satisfy a Flashback Table request is retrieved from the undo tablespace. You can use Flashback Versions Query and Flashback Transaction Query to determine the appropriate flashback time. Flashback Table provides a way for users to easily and quickly recover from accidental modifications without a database administrator’s involvement. You must grant the FLASHBACK TABLE or FLASHBACK ANY TABLE system privilege to any user that uses the Flashback Table feature. In addition, you must grant the SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and ALTER object privileges to the user. You can use Enterprise Manager to flash back a table. The wizard guides you through the process. Note: Enabling row movement is described on the next page.

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Flashback Table

ALTER TABLE employees ENABLE ROW MOVEMENT;

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Enabling Row Movement on a Table You must enable row movement on a table to be able to flash back the table. When you enable row movement, the Oracle server can move a row in the table. Using Enterprise Manager, you can enable row movement on a table by performing the following steps: 1. Select Tables in the Database Objects region of the Schema property page. Enter the schema name to search for the table, and click Go. 2. Click the table name of the table for which you want to enable row movement. You are now on the View Table page. 3. Click Edit, which takes you to the Edit Table page. 4. Click the Options tab, where you can change the Enable Row Movement setting for the table. 5. Set Enable Row Movement to Yes, and click Apply. The update confirmation message is displayed.

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Enabling Row Movement on a Table

FLASHBACK TABLE hr.departments TO TIMESTAMP TO_TIMESTAMP('2007-04-05 21:00:00', 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'); Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Performing Flashback Table You can use Enterprise Manager to flash back a table by performing the following steps: 1. Select Perform Recovery in the Backup/Recovery region on the Availability property page. 2. In the Object Level Recovery region, select Tables from the Object Type drop-down list. 3. Select Flashback Existing Tables as Operation Type. Click Recover. The “Perform Object Level Recovery: Point-in-time” page is displayed. 4. Select “Flashback to a timestamp” or “Flashback to a known SCN” and then specify a time stamp or SCN to flash back to, and click Next. 5. Click Add Tables to add tables to the list for the flashback operation. Click Next. 6. The Dependency Options page appears if there are dependent tables. Select the desired option for dealing with dependent tables. Typically, you would select “Cascade” to ensure a consistent flashback. Click Next. 7. The “Perform Object Level Recovery: Review” page appears. Review the information and click Submit. The Confirmation page appears. Note: You can also flash back tables from the Tables link in the Schema region of the Administration page.

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Performing Flashback Table

• • • •

The FLASHBACK TABLE command executes as a single transaction, acquiring exclusive DML locks. Statistics are not flashed back. Current indexes and dependent objects are maintained. Flashback Table operations: – Cannot be performed on system tables – Cannot span DDL operations – Generate undo and redo data

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Table: Considerations • The entire FLASHBACK TABLE statement is executed within a single transaction. All or none of the specified tables are flashed back. • Flashback Table acquires exclusive data manipulation language (DML) locks on all the tables that are specified in the statement over the period of time when the operation is in progress. • Statistics of impacted objects are not flashed back. • All existing indexes are maintained. Dropped indexes are not re-created. Dependent on-commit materialized views are also maintained automatically. • Tables specified in the FLASHBACK TABLE statement are flashed back, provided that none of the table constraints are violated. If any constraints are violated during flashback execution, the operation is aborted and the tables are left in the same state as they were just before the FLASHBACK TABLE statement invocation. • You cannot perform Flashback Table to a particular time that is older than the time of the execution of a data definition language (DDL) operation that altered the structure of or shrunk a table that would be involved in the flashback operation. This restriction does not apply to DDL statements that only change storage attributes of the tables. • Flashback Table cannot be performed on system tables, remote tables, and fixed tables.

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Flashback Table: Considerations

Select all correct statements: 1. The database can remain open when a table is flashed back. 2. Flashback Table is executed as a single transaction. 3. Flashback Table requires backups to be available. 4. Flashback Table is based on undo data.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Answer: 1, 2, 4

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Quiz

Flashback Transaction Query >

Flashback - Overview - Query - Table - Transaction

DBA Erroneous DML

Undo SQL

User Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Transaction Query Flashback Transaction Query is a diagnostic tool that you can use to view changes made to the database at the transaction level. This enables you to diagnose problems in your database and perform analysis and audits of transactions. You can use the FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY view to determine all the necessary SQL statements that can be used to undo the changes made either by a specific transaction or during a specific period of time.

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FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY

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Using Enterprise Manager to Perform Flashback Transaction Query This feature is used in conjunction with the Flashback Version Query feature with the help of the Perform Recovery Wizard. On the “Perform Object Level Recovery: Choose SCN” page, click the corresponding Transaction ID link in the Flashback Version Query Result region. In the example in the slide, a Flashback Version Query is performed on the JOBS table to retrieve the three versions of the JOBS row for JOB_ID = 'AD_PRES'. Then, one of the transaction IDs is clicked, showing all the changes that were part of that transaction. Notice that in addition to the JOBS table update, there was also an update to the EMPLOYEES table in that transaction.

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Using Enterprise Manager to Perform Flashback Transaction Query

• • • •

DDL commands are seen as dictionary updates. Flashback Transaction Query on a transaction underlying a DDL command displays the data dictionary changes. Dropped objects appear as object numbers. Dropped users appear as user identifiers.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashback Transaction Query: Considerations Within the database, DDL operations are nothing but a series of space management operations and changes to the data dictionary. Flashback Transaction Query on a transaction underlying a DDL command displays the changes made to the data dictionary. When Flashback Transaction Query involves tables that have been dropped from the database, the table names are not reflected. Instead, object numbers are used. If the user who executed a transaction is dropped, Flashback Transaction Query of that transaction displays the corresponding user ID only, and not the username. Note: When there is not enough undo data for a specific transaction, a row with a value of UNKNOWN in the OPERATION column of FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY is returned.

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Flashback Transaction Query: Considerations

• • • • • •

Setting up Flashback Transaction prerequisites Stepping through a possible workflow Using the Flashback Transaction Wizard Querying transactions with and without dependencies Choosing back-out options and flashing back transactions Reviewing the results

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Flashback Transaction With Flashback Transaction, you can reverse a transaction and dependant transactions. Oracle Database determines the dependencies between transactions and, in effect, creates a compensating transaction that reverses the unwanted changes. The database rewinds to a state as if the transaction, and any transactions that could be dependent on it, never occurred. You can use the Flashback Transaction functionality from within Enterprise Manager or with PL/SQL packages.

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Flashback Transaction

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Prerequisites In order to use this functionality, supplemental logging must be enabled and the correct privileges established. For example, the HR user in the HR schema decides to use Flashback Transaction for the REGIONS table. The SYSDBA performs the following setup steps in SQL*Plus: alter alter grant grant

database add supplemental database add supplemental execute on dbms_flashback select any transaction to

log data; log data (primary key) columns; to hr; hr;

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Prerequisites

• •



You can flash back a transaction with Enterprise Manager or from the command line. EM uses the Flashback Transaction Wizard, which calls the DBMS_FLASHBACK.TRANSACTION_BACKOUT procedure with the NOCASCADE option. If the PL/SQL call finishes successfully, it means that the transaction does not have any dependencies and a single transaction is backed out successfully.

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Flashing Back a Transaction Security privileges To flash back or back-out a transaction—that is, to create a compensating transaction—you must have the SELECT, FLASHBACK, and DML privileges on all affected tables. Conditions of Use • Transaction back-out is not supported across conflicting DDL. • Transaction back-out inherits data type support from LogMiner. See the Oracle Database 11g documentation for supported data types. Recommendation • When you discover the need for transaction back-out, performance is better if you start the backout operation sooner. Large redo logs and high transaction rates result in slower transaction back-out operations. • Provide a transaction name for the back-out operation to facilitate later auditing. If you do not provide a transaction name, it will be automatically generated for you.

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Flashing Back a Transaction

1. Viewing data in a table 2. Discovering a logical problem 3. Using Flashback Transaction 1. 2. 3. 4.

Performing a query Selecting a transaction Flashing back a transaction (with no conflicts) Choosing other back-out options (if conflicts exists)

4. Reviewing Flashback Transaction results

Copyright © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Possible Workflow Assume that several transactions occurred as indicated below: connect hr Enter password: oracle_4U
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