Module 3- NSTP
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Module 3: Basic Leadership Principles and Skills Lecture: Basic Leadership Principles and Skills 1. Leadership a. Definition • Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective or task, or sway their decision and opinions1; • Leadership also means to direct the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent; or to influence a group of individuals to reach a common goal.2
b. Two types of Leadership • Process leadership3 – these are leaders that acquires their leadership skills and knowledge thru leadership training, workshop and seminars; • Trait leadership – a common knowledge that leaders are born and not made.
c. Four Factors of Leadership4 • Leader - You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do as a leader to be able to lead effectively; • Followers – they are the direct recipient of leadership • Communication – there must be continuous and two-way communication between leaders and followers and much of it is nonverbal in form; • Situation – the circumstance when the leadership is exercised and followed. No situations are the same. You must always use your judgment to decide the best course of action and style needed for each situation.
d. Legitimacy of Leadership5
• Assigned Leadership – the authority to lead is vested in a particular position a leader occupies like a manager, supervisor, lead, etc; • Emergent Leadership – the authority to lead comes directly from the follower who thinks that the group’s goal could be best achieved under your leadership.
2. Bass' Theory of Leadership6 a. Bass' theory of leadership list down the three basic ways to explain how people become leaders: • Trait theory - some personality traits may lead people to be appointed or led naturally into leadership roles; • Great Events Theory – a crisis or important event may cause a person to be appointed or assumed leadership role; • Process Leadership theory – basically argues that people can learn leadership skills.
3. Leadership Models a. Leadership models help us to know what makes leaders act the way they do: • Four Framework Approach:7 1. Leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. a. Structural Framework i. The leader is a social architect whose leadership style is to analyze and design course of action. They focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. b. Human Resource Framework
i. The leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is to support, advocator and promotes empowerment. c. Political Framework i. The leadership style is based on coalition and building alliances. d. Symbolic Framework i. The leader serves as a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration.
4. What makes a person want to follow a leader? a. People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction.
5. The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership a. Trust and confidence b. Effective communication
6. Principles of Good Leadership8 a. Know yourself and seek self-improvement b. Be technically proficient c. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions d. Make sound and timely decisions e. Set the example f. Know your people and look out for their well-being g. Keep your workers informed h. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers i.
Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished
Train as a team
k. Use the full capabilities of your organization
7. The Process of Great Leadership9 a. Challenge the process b. Inspire a shared vision c. Enable others to act d. Model the way e. Encourage the heart
8. Virtue The following virtues are considered the foundation of leadership10: a. Prudence – the habit which enable man to direct his actions to human life’s goal. b. Justice - the habit of giving each one his due with constant and perpetual will. c. Fortitude – the habit of overcoming the difficulties and pressures of life in the pursuit of good. d. Temperance – the habit of bringing the desires and natural inclination of man under the control of reason. e. Industry – the habit of working hard and working under pressure. f. Loyalty – the habit of remaining true to your friends and to your principles (goals) in times of troubles. g. Responsibility – the habit of being accountable for one’s actions, duties and obligations; readiness to answer the consequences of one’s actions. h. Cheerfulness – the habit of being optimistic, positive and always seeing the bright side of things.
Generosity – the habit of sharing the good that one has with other people; thinking first of the people around him and looking for ways he can help and serve them,
Magnanimity – the habit of having great ideas and ambitions of doing good; being concerned with doing great deeds of service to others by devoting one’s life to serve the country or to help people.
9. Decision Making a. Authoritarian Leadership (Survival) • A leader makes a decision and announces it. • The member of the group is not asked for opinion or suggestions but all major decision is from top to bottom • The leader does not consult its member and take sole responsibility of the organization. 11
b. Consultative Leadership (Security) • A leader presents a tentative decision subject to change • The members of the group received a pre-conceived plan and decisions which are still subject for approval, reform and changes • The leader consult the member but in the end still take full responsibility of decision making
c. Enabling Leadership (Participation)12 • A leader defines limits, calls on members to make a decision. • The members are given more power and privilege in defining the nature, objective and the course of action of the organization • Each member of the group has more opportunity to be trained to become leaders in the future • The leaders believe in shared aims and objectives and a sense of commitment to the group
• To motivate the members to participate there must be acceptance of group values and norms • There is also feeling of mutual trust and dependency which leads to full participation by all members and decision-making
10.Vincentian Leadership skills and principles a. Objective • The National Service Training Program of Adamson University is not just intended to promote civic consciousness and social responsibility among students but also to mold a Vincentian leader among them.
b. Four characteristics of Vincentian Leaders13: • Make no small plans • People and process first • Promote sustainable institutions • A heart and concern for the poor
c. The Task of a Vincentian Leader14 • Strive for excellence by following through with a task until completed. • Offer clear directions to achieve objectives. • They must be pragmatic and effectively communicate ideas and plans, base judgments on facts, and set clear and realistic goals. • Take risks, pursuing innovation even if risky. • View conflict as opportunities for growth. • Openly receive criticism and challenges from others.
d. How does a Vincentian and NSTP youth leader conducts extends service to the community, to their fellowmen and the country15 • Inspire others with examples of service. • Practice leadership as a responsibility rather than a position. • Serve others regardless of race, gender, religion, or position. • Empower people by helping others to become better leaders. • Create environments that promote learning. • Delegate appropriately; independently.
• Work for social justice by seeking to transform the causes of poverty and challenge unjust practices.
Daft. Richard L. (2008). The Leadership Experience, 4th Edition. Thomson South-Western. Ohio. U.S.A. p 1 2 Ibid 3 Northouse, Peter Guy, G. (2008). Leadership: Theory and Practice I 5th Edition. SAGE Publication. California. U.S.A. p. 5 4 Talloo, Thelma, J. (2007). Business Organization and Management: For B. Com Course of University of Delhi. Tata Mc Graw Hill. New Delhi p. 49 5 Rowe, W. Glenn et al. (2011). Cases in Leadership: 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications, Inc. California, U.S.A. p. 3 6 Bass, Bernard M. (1998). Transformation Leadership: Industrial, Military and Educational Impact. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. New Jersey U.S.A. p. 18 7 Talloo. Ibid. p. 132 8 Generalized reflection during the AdU NSTP Instructors Team Building I Caliraya, Lumban, Laguna dated June 24-25, 2011 9 Reflection presented by Professor Gabriel M. Delos Santos, during the AdU NSTP Instructors Team Building I Caliraya, Lumban, Laguna dated June 24-25, 2011 10 AdU NSTP Teambuilding, Ibid. 11 Select Knowledge. (2000). Managing Team. University of Cambridge. p. 9 12 Select Knowledge. Ibid p. 26 13 General guideline for Vincentian Youth Leaders promoted by the Institute for Religious Study (IRED) of Adamson University adopted by AdU NSTP 14 AdU NSTP General Guidelines on Vincentian Leadership presented during the Vincentian Youth Leadership Training for the youth of Northville III, Bgy. Bayugo, Meycauayan, Bulacan last May 9, 2011 at the OZ-AVR f Adamson University 15 AdU NSTP General Guidelines, Ibid.