Juran's Quality Planning and Analysis v3

September 9, 2017 | Author: Abir Hadžić | Category: Business Process, Six Sigma, Causality, Quality Management System, Quality (Business)
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Instructor’s Notes

Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition 2007, Gryna, F., Chua, R., & Defeo, J., McGraw-Hill

Dr. Karl Knapp

Revised 8/7/2006

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Teaching Notes

Introduction

Teaching notes Tell - Discussion rules – don‟t name your company in discussion groups (could be a former firm) Ask – is your (current or past) company nimble? Customer focused? Efficient? Product quality goods and services? Tell - These are the kinds of questions that need to be asked to improve

The Road Map for Enterprise Quality A typical enterprise may look like this (and wants to change):       

It has high operating costs and lower than expected profits Productivity comes first before customers, and quality is often sacrificed for schedules It is slow to respond to complaints or needed corrective action It lacks creativity and initiative in new process or product and service designs It lacks employee-management trust that may lead to turnover or possible unionization There is little collaboration or employee participation Quality is someone else‟s job

This enterprise would rather look like this (best in class):        Ask - What is the first step in any change? (recognizing the need for change)

Greater profitability through leaner processes and greater productivity A customer focused staff responding quickly to complaints Continuous improvement in all processes Employees are empowered and in a state of self-control to maintain performance Flat, flexible organizational structures Quality is everyone‟s job Vision and value-driven leadership

Five Phases in the Roadmap for Enterprise Quality The Road Map for Enterprise Quality has five phases. Each phase is independent, but the beginning and end of each phase are not clearly delineated. The road starts at the Decide Phase. This phase begins when someone on the executive team decides that something must be done. It ends with a clear plan for change. 1.

Decide phase – In the decide phase, the organization will need to create new information or better information than it may have had about itself. There are a number of areas that should be reviewed: 

For your customers – conduct a customer loyalty assessment to determine what they like or dislike about your products and services



For your culture – identify the areas of strength and uncover possible problems in the organization‟s performance; understand employee attitudes toward the proposed changes



Key business processes – understand the key business processes and how the changes will affect them



Determine the business case for change – conduct a cost

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analysis of poorly performing processes to determine the financial impact of these costs on the bottom line 

Conduct a world-class quality review of all business units to understand the level of improvement needed in each unit

From this information the firm can develop an implementation plan for its organization which should include:

Tell – Pilot efforts are frequently a key to success



The infrastructure needed to steer the changes



The methodology and tools that will be used throughout the implementation



The goals and objectives of the effort



The detailed plan for achieving results

2.

Prepare phase – in this phase the executive team begins to prepare for the changes that will take place. It focuses on developing a pilot effort to try the change in a few business units before carrying it out in the total organization. This phase begins by deploying the plan created in phase one and it ends after a successful launch of pilot projects.

3.

Launch phase - this phase begins by deploying the plan created in phase one and it ends after a successful launch of pilot projects. In this phase

4.

Expand phase – expansion can take months or years depending on the size of the organization. The expand phase may take 3 to 5 years.

5.

Sustain phase – the final phase is when the organization has a fully integrated operation. All improvement and six sigma goals are aligned with the strategy of the organization. Key business processes are defined and well managed, and process owners are assigned to manage them. Employee performance reviews and compensation are in line with the changes required. Those who comply with the change are rewarded. The executives and business unit heads conduct regular reviews and audits of the change process. This may result in a discussion or even a change in the strategy of the organization.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 1 – Basic Concepts

Teaching notes Ask – What is the perception of Japanese products? (Toyota/Honda) Ask – what used to be the perception of Japanese products? (cheap junk) Ask – If you are making a product and getting poor quality, who is to blame? Tell – key point – focus is on management responsible for quality

1.1 Quality, a Look at History The first force was the Japanese revolution in quality. The Japanese took some revolutionary steps to improve quality: 1

Upper level managers personally took charge of leading the revolution

2

All levels and functions received training in the quality disciplines

3

Quality improvement projects were undertaken on a continuing basis – at a revolutionary pace

The second major force to affect quality was the prominence of product quality in the public mind. J.M. Juran emphasizes the importance of a balanced approach using managerial, statistical, and technological concepts of quality. He recommends an operational framework of three quality processes, quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. W. Edwards Deming also had a broad view of quality, which he initially summarized in 14 points aimed at the management of an organization.

1.2 Quality – The Changing Business Conditions Ask – (1) what happens to price as quality increases? Can you have both?

Exercise – 10 min exercise – list your company‟s competitors that shape customer expectations. Debrief – Mention Disney‟s VP of Parking – customers expectations are shaped by their quality experiences Ask – (5) Does your company do everything themselves? Ask – (6) How is our workforce changing

The identification of quality as a core concern has evolved through a number of changing business conditions. These include: 1

Competition – in the past, higher quality usually meant higher price. Today, customers can obtain high quality and low price simultaneously.

2

The customer-focused organization – The impact of quality as a tool of competition has led to viewing quality as customer satisfaction and loyalty rather than conformance to specifications.

3

Higher levels of customer expectation – including lower variability around a target value of a product characteristic and improved quality of service both before and after the sale.

4

Performance improvement – quality, cycle time, cost, and profitability have become interdependent.

5

Changes in organization forms – concepts like partnering with other organizations, outsourcing of complete functions, process management, and various types of permanent and temporary teams – and all this with fewer layers of management.

6

Changing workforce – these changes include a higher level of education for some parts of the workforce, a multilingual workforce, and downsizing.

7

Information revolution – the relative ease with which information can be collected and disseminated throughout an organization.

8

Electronic commerce

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9

Role of a “quality department” – the integration of quality into line departments has decreased the size of (or even eliminated) the quality department.

Group exercise (30 min)

1.3 Quality Defined



Debate and define what quality is (don‟t use the book)

One short definition of quality is “customer satisfaction and loyalty”.

Come to group consensus on:

1

External customers include ultimate users (current and potential) and also intermediate processors, as well as retailers. External customers clearly are of primary importance.

2

Internal customers include other divisions of a company that are provided with information or components for an assembly and also departments or persons that supply products to each other.



o

What is quality?

o

How do you know something is quality?

o

Give examples

Ask – given examples of “quality companies”, what do you think are the characteristics of those companies? Of non-quality companies? What is it like to work there? Ask – (don‟t use your books) list the features for quality for manufacturing and service

A customer is “anyone who is affected by the service, product or process”.

These external and internal customers are sometimes called “stakeholders”. A product is the output of any process. Three categories can be identified: goods, software and services. Product means “goods, software or services”. Customer satisfaction and loyalty are achieved through two dimensions: features and freedom from deficiencies. Manufacturing

Services Features

Performance

Accuracy

Reliability

Timeliness

Durability

Completeness

Ease of use

Friendliness and courtesy

Servicability

Anticipating customer needs

Esthetics

Knowledge of server

Availability of options and expandability

Appearance of facilities and personnel

Reputation

Reputation Freedom from Deficiencies

Ask – what does freedom from deficiencies mean for manufacturing? For service?

Product free from defects and errors at delivery, during use, and during servicing All processes free of rework loops, redundancy, and other waste

Service free of errors during original and future service transactions All processes free of rework looks, redundancy, and other waste

Each organization must identify the dimensions of quality that are important to its customers. A closer examination of the two dimensions reveals further insights: 

Features have a major effect on sales income. Features refer to the quality of design. Increasing the quality of the design generally leads to higher costs.

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Freedom from deficiencies has a major effect on costs through reductions in scrap, rework, complaints, and other results from deficiencies. “Deficiencies” are stated in different units, e.g., errors, defects, failures, off-specification. Freedom from deficiencies refers to quality of conformance. Increasing the quality of conformance means fewer complains and therefore decreased customer dissatisfaction.

To summarize, quality is defined by the customer. Features and freedom from deficiencies are the main determinants of satisfaction.

1.4 The Quality Function Tell

The quality function is the entire collection of activities through which we achieve customer satisfaction and loyalty, no matter where these activities are performed. Under this enlarged concept, all jobs encompass three roles for the jobholder: the customer who receives inputs of information and physical goods, the processor who converts these inputs into products (outputs), and the supplier who delivers the resulting products to customers. This concept is called the triple-role concept.

My Supplier

My output

My input

My Customer

I Am Responsible for Quality

Requirements & Feedback

As a good customer I will:

As a good process owner I will:

As a good supplier I will:

+ Agree on and document my requirements with my supplier + Return defective inputs to my supplier promptly and tactfully + Feed back input quality data to my supplier

+ Learn and apply the tools of quality – teach others + Continuously improve my process – reduce defects, cycle time and know benchmarks + Document and display my process, defect levels, and CI projects

Requirements & Feedback

+ Understand my customer requirements and agree on and document my deliverables + Reduce defects and variations in my output + Measure my output quality from my customer‟s perspective

1.5 Relationships: Quality, Productivity, Costs, Cycle Time, and Value

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Ask – what is productivity?

Quality and Productivity Productivity is the ratio of salable output divided by the resources used. When quality is improved by identifying and eliminating the causes of errors and rework, more usable output is available for the same amount of labor input. Thus, the improvement in quality results directly in an increase in productivity.

Quality and Costs Tell

Ask – what happens when you reduce rework, redundancy, and errors?

As the quality of design (features) increases, costs typically increase. As the quality of conformance increases, the reduction in rework, complaints, scrap and other deficiencies results in a significant decrease in costs. An ideal strategy calls for using the savings from reduced deficiencies to pay for any increase in features without increasing the selling price, thus resulting in higher customer satisfaction and increased sales revenue.

Quality and Cycle Time When a quality improvement effort reduces rework, redundant operations, and other deficiencies, a simultaneous reduction in cycle time occurs.

Quality and Value Value is quality divided by price. Quality activities must try to detect quality problems early enough to permit action without requiring a compromise in cost, schedule, or quality. The emphasis must be on prevention rather than on just correction of quality problems.

1.6 Managing for Quality Managing for quality is the process of identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the customer-driven objectives of an organization. Universal processes for managing quality Planning

Control

Improvement

Establish the project

Choose control subjects

Prove the need

Identify customers Discover customer needs Develop product Develop process Develop process controls, transfer to operations

Establish measurement

Identify projects Organize project teams

Establish standards of performance

Diagnose the causes

Measure actual performance

Provide remedies, prove that the remedies are effective

Compare to standards Take action on the difference

Deal with resistance to change Control to hold the gains

Insert diagram on page 20 The planning process is really operational planning directed at product and process planning. Design for Six Sigma (DMADV) and other design methodologies are for planning, whereas Six Sigma DMAIC, Lean, and such 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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methodologies are for improvement.

1.7 Quality Disciplines & Other Disciplines Quality disciplines is the term used to denote the body of quality-related knowledge.

1.8 Perspectives on Quality – Internal versus External Two Views of Quality Tell

Internal View

External View

Compare product to specification

Compare product to competition and to the best

Group Exercise (20 min)

Get product accepted at inspection

Form two groups. Argue for the superiority of an internal view of quality versus an external view

Prevent plant and field defects Concentrate on manufacturing Use internal quality measures View quality as a technical issue Efforts coordinated by quality manager

Provide satisfaction over product life Meet customer needs on goods and services Cover all functions Use customer-based quality measures View quality as a business issue Efforts directed by upper management

Summary 

Quality is customer satisfaction and loyalty



Quality has two components: product features and freedom from deficiencies



Product features affect sales income



Freedom from deficiencies affects costs



Attainment of quality requires activities in all functions of an organization



Traditional quality activities have concentrated on manufacturing (“little Q”); modern quality activities encompass all activities (“big Q”)



All jobs have three roles: customer, processor, supplier



We can identify three quality processes: planning, control, improvement. Each process has a defined list of steps



Sporadic and chronic quality problems require different approaches.



Quality, costs and schedules can be mutually compatible



Quality management draws upon the knowledge of many other disciplines



Both internal and external views of quality are essential

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 2 – Companywide Assessment of Quality

Teaching notes

2.1 Why Assessment? Quality assessment describes a companywide review of the status of quality. Assessment of quality comprises four elements: 

Cost of poor quality



Standing in the marketplace



Quality culture in the organization



Operation of the company quality system

An annual or biannual assessment is usually warranted.

2.2 Cost of Poor Quality Tell

The cost of poor quality is the annual monetary loss of products and processes that are not achieving their quality objectives. The cost of poor quality is important in reducing costs and customer dissatisfaction. It can also be referred to as the cost of poorly performing processes (COP).

Ask – why do companies want to assess the cost of poor quality?

Companies estimate the cost of poor quality for several reasons: 

Quantifying the size of the quality problem in the language of money improves communication between middle managers and upper managers.



Major opportunities for cost reduction can be identified.



Opportunities for reducing customer dissatisfaction and associated threats to product salability can be identified.



Measuring this cost provides a means of evaluating the progress of quality improvement activities and spotlighting obstacles to improvements.



Knowing the cost of poor quality (and the three other assessment elements) leads to the development of a strategic quality plan that is consistent with overall organization of goals.

2.3 Categories of Quality Costs Tell (four categories)

Many organizations summarize the costs associated with quality in four categories: internal failures, external failures, appraisal and prevention. Collectively, the four categories are often called the “cost of quality”. The cost of poor quality includes the internal and external failure categories, whereas the appraisal and prevention categories are viewed as investments to achieve quality objectives.

Internal Failure Costs Internal failure costs are the cost of deficiencies discovered before delivery that are associated with the failure to meet explicit requirements or implicit needs of

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Tell (2 types of internal failure costs)

customers. Also included are avoidable processes losses and inefficiencies that occur even when requirements and needs are met. Internal failure costs consist of: (1) the cost of failure to meet customer requirements and needs and (2) the cost of inefficient processes. Failure to meet customer requirements and needs

Ask – what problems are caused by failure to meet customer requirements and needs?



Scrap – the labor, material, and (usually) overhead on defective product that can not be repaired economically.



Rework – correcting defectives in physical products or errors in service products.



Lost or missing information – retrieving information that should have been supplied



Failure analysis – analyzing nonconforming goods or services to determine causes



Scrap and rework / supplier – scrap and rework because of nonconforming product received from suppliers



One hundred percent sorting inspection – finding defective units in product lots that contain unacceptably high levels of defectives



Reinspection, retest – reinspection and retest of products that have undergone rework or other revision.



Changing processes – modifying manufacturing or service processes to correct deficiencies.



Redesign of hardware – changing designs of hardware to correct deficiencies.



Redesign of software – changing designs of software to correct deficiencies.



Scrapping of obsolete product – disposing of products that have been superseded.



Scrap in support operations – defective items in indirect operations.



Rework in internal support operation – correcting defecting items in indirect operations



Downgrading – the difference between the normal selling price and the reduced price because of poor quality.

Cost of inefficient processes 

Variability of product characteristics – losses that occur even with conforming product (e.g. overfill of packages due to variability of filling and measuring equipment).



Unplanned downtime of equipment – loss of capacity of equipment due to failures.



Inventory shrinkage – loss due to the difference between actual and recorded inventory amounts.



Variation of process characteristics form “best practice” – losses due to cycle time and costs of process compared to best practices in providing the same output, the best practice process may be internal

Ask – what are the costs of inefficient processes?

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or external to the organization. 

Tell – definition of external failure costs Tell – 2 categories

Non-value-added activities – redundant operations, sorting inspections, and other non-value-added activities. A value-added activity increases the usefulness of a product to the customer; a nonvalue-added activity does not.

External Failure Costs External failure costs are associated with deficiencies that are found after the customer receives the product. Also included are lost opportunities for sales revenue. Failure to meet customer requirements and needs

Ask – what are the problems and costs of external failure to meet requirements and needs?

Tell



Warranty charges – the costs involved in replacing or making repairs to products that are still within the warranty period.



Complaint adjustments – the costs of investigation and adjustment of justified complaints attributable to defective product or installation.



Returned material – the costs associated with receipt and replacement of defective product received from the field.



Allowances – the costs of concessions made to customers due to substandard products accepted by the customer as is or to conforming product that does not meet customer needs.



Penalties due to poor quality – this category applies to goods or services delivered or to internal processes such as late payment of an invoice resulting in a lost discount for paying on time.



Rework on support operations – correcting errors on billing and other external processes.



Revenue losses in support operations – an example is the failure to collect receivables from some customers.

Lost opportunities for sales revenue 

Customer defections – profit on potential customers lost because of poor quality.



New customers lost because of lack of capability to meet customer needs.

Appraisal Costs Tell – definition of appraisal costs Ask – what are the individual appraisal costs?

Appraisal costs are incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements. 

Inspection and test – determining the quality of purchased product, whether by inspection on receipt, by inspection at the source, or by surveillance.



In-process inspection and test – in process evaluation of conformance to requirements



Final inspection and test – evaluation of conformance to requirements for product acceptance.



Document review – examination of paperwork to be sent to the

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customer.

Tell – definition of prevention costs



Balancing – examination of various accounts to assure internal consistency.



Product quality audits – performing quality audits on in-process or finished products.



Maintaining accuracy of test equipment – keeping measuring instruments and equipment calibrated.



Inspection and test materials and services – materials and supplies in inspection and test work and services where significant.



Evaluation of stocks – testing products in field storage or in stock to evaluate degradation.

Prevention Costs Prevention costs are incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a minimum.

Tell – details



Quality planning – this category includes the broad array of activities that collectively create the overall quality plan and the numerous specialized plans.



New products review – reliability engineering and other quality-related activities associated with the launching of a new design.



Process planning – process capability studies, inspection planning, and other activities associated with the manufacturing and service processes



Process control – in-process inspection and test to determine the status of the process (rather than for product acceptance).



Quality audits – evaluating the execution of activities in the overall quality plan



Supplier quality evaluation – evaluating supplier quality activities prior to supplier selection, auditing the activities during the contract, and performing associated effort with suppliers.



Training – preparing and conducting quality-related training programs.

The compilation of prevention costs is initially important because it highlights the small investment currently made (usually) in prevention activities and suggests the potential for an increase in prevention costs to reduce failure costs. One of the issues in calculating the cost of poor quality is how to handle overhead costs. Three approaches are common: include total overhead using direct labor or some other base, include variable overhead only (the usual approach), or do not include overhead at all.

Hidden Quality Costs Tell – hidden costs

The cost of poor quality may be understated because of costs that are difficult to estimate. “Hidden” costs occur in both manufacturing and service industries and include the following: 

Potential lost sales



Costs of redesign of products due to poor quality

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Costs of changing processes due to inability to meet quality requirements for products



Costs of software changes due to quality reasons



Costs of downtime of equipment and systems including computer information systems



Costs included in standards because history shows that a certain level of defects is inevitable and allowances should be included in standards o

Extra material purchased

o

Allowances for scrap and rework during production

o

Allowances in time standards for scrap and rework

o

Extra process equipment capacity



Extra indirect costs due to defects and errors



Scrap and errors not reported



Extra process costs due to excessive product variability (even though within specification limits)



Cost of errors in support operations (e.g. order filling, shipping, customer service, billing)



Cost of poor quality within a supplier‟s company

2.4 Relating the Cost of Poor Quality to Business Measures Reducing the cost of poor quality has a dramatic impact on company financial performance.

2.5 Optimum Cost of Quality Ask – How much is the cost of poor quality as a % of sales for manufacturing? As a % of expenses for services companies?

For manufacturing organizations the annual cost of poor quality is about 15% of sales income, varying from about 5 to 35% depending on product complexity. For service organizations the average is about 30% of operating expenses, varying from 25 to 40% depending on service complexity. Total costs are highest for complex industries, failure costs are the largest percentage of the total, and prevention costs are a small percentage of the total.

See graph p 38



Failure costs – these costs equal zero when the product is 100% good and rise to infinity when the product is 100% defective.



The costs of appraisal plus prevention – these costs are zero at 100% defective and rise as perfection is approached.



The sum of both curves (total quality cost) – represents the total cost of quality per good unit of product.

This breakdown suggests that the minimum level of total quality costs occurs when the quality of conformance is 100%, i.e., perfection. Although perfection is obviously the goal for the long run, perfection is not necessarily the most economic goal for the short run or for every situation.

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Industries, however, are facing increasing pressure to reach perfection. To evaluate whether quality improvement has reached the economic limit, we need to compare the benefits possible from specific projects with the costs involved in achieving these benefits. Quantifying this cost can be the key to gaining approval from management to assign resources to quality improvement, and the main uses of the cost-of-poor-quality study are to identify opportunities for improvement projects and to provide supporting data to assist in improvement.

2.6 Standing in the Marketplace Ask – other than how your firm is doing in regards to quality, what else is important to know?

We also need to understand where the company stands on quality in the marketplace, relative to the competition. Three types of questions should be considered: 

What is the relative importance of various product qualities as seen by the user?



For each of the key qualities, how does our product compare with competitors‟ products, as seen by users?



How likely is the customer to purchase from us again or recommend us to others?

Terms like customer satisfaction and quality are too foggy to be meaningful. Instead, we must identify the attributes or features of the product that collectively define satisfaction. The relative importance of the product attributes can be determined by several methods. In one approach, customers are asked to allocate 100 points over the various attributes. Another approach, presents combinations of product attributes to customers and asks them to indicate their preferences. Ask – where can you get data on competitor quality?

Obtaining data on competitor quality involves a variety of methods. Laboratory testing is one method. Other methods include directly asking customers for ratings on competitors or using mystery shoppers, focus groups, or some of the other market research methods (discussed in chapter 10). Another source for comparison to competition is the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). This index covers 200 firms in seven sectors of the economy (manufacturing and service). Many of the concepts presented for external customers can be adapted and applied to internal customers.

2.7 Organization Culture on Quality Employees in an organization have opinions, beliefs, traditions, and practices concerning quality. We will call this set of characteristics the “company quality culture”.

2.8 Assessment of Current Quality Activities The fourth element of assessment is the evaluation of current quality-related activities in the organization. Assessment of current quality activities can take two forms: 

Assessments that focus on customer satisfaction results but include an evaluation of the current system of quality-related activities

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Assessments that focus on evaluation of the current quality system, with little emphasis on customer satisfaction results

Often an organization starts by having an outsider conduct a three- to five-day assessment of the current status of quality.

2.9 National Quality Awards A more detailed companywide assessment relies on established criteria, e.g., the criteria used in connection with the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. Baldrige Award recipients as a group have outperformed the Standard and Poor‟s 500 stock index by about 2.5 to 1.0. The seven Baldrige categories can be viewed as a system. Categories 1, 2, and 3 represent a leadership triad; categories 5, 6 and 7 represent a results triad; category 4 provides the foundations of fact-based information. Many organizations use the Baldrige criteria to conduct self-assessments. Understanding the Baldrige criteria requires knowledge of the concepts of alignment and linkages. Alignment is the translation of organization goals into goals, subgoals, and standards at all levels – organization, key processes and work unit levels. Linkages are the interrelationships – the connections – between specific quality-related management activities so that the activities are mutually reinforcing to produce the desired results. Eleven core values and concepts are embodied in the award criteria:

Tell – about homework



visionary leadership



customer driven



organizational and personal learning



valuing employees and partners



agility



focus on the future



managing for innovation



management by fact



public responsibility and citizenship



focus on results and creating value



systems perspective

2.10 ISO 9000 Quality System Standards Tell

An international effort to identify the key elements of a quality system for manufacturing and service organizations has resulted in a series of quality standards. The purpose is to facilitate international trade by establishing a common set of standards. These standards, developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), are know as the ISO 9000 series quality standards. Purchasers of products can require that potential suppliers be registered to the appropriate ISO criteria as a prerequisite to receiving a contract. Evaluation for such “quality systems registration” is made by an independent organization.

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The ISO 9000 series should be viewed as the minimum elements of a quality system. Baldrige and ISO 9000 should be viewed as complementary.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 3 – Quality Improvement and Cost Reduction 3.1 Sporadic and Chronic Problems

Tell – two types of problems.

The costs associated with waste (cost, quality, time related) are due to both sporadic and chronic problems. A sporadic problem is a sudden, adverse change in the status quo, which requires remedy by restoring the status quo. A chronic problem is a long-standing adverse situation, which requires remedy by changing the status quo. “Continuous improvement” (called kaizen by the Japanese) as acquired a broad meaning, i.e., enduring efforts to act upon both chronic and sporadic problems and to make refinements to processes. For chronic problems, it means achieving better and better levels of performance each year; for sporadic problems, it means taking corrective action on periodic problems; for process refinements, it means taking such action as reducing variation around a target value. The distinction between chronic and sporadic problems is important for two reasons: 

The approach to solving sporadic problems differs from that to solving chronic problems



Sporadic problems are dramatic and must receive immediate attention. Chronic problems are not dramatic because they occur over a long time, are often difficult to solve, and are accepted as inevitable. The danger is that the firefighting on sporadic problems may take continuing priority over efforts to achieve the larger savings that are possible, i.e., on chronic problems.



A key reason for the chronic waste present in organizations is the lack of a structured approach to identify and reduce the waste.

3.2 Project-By-Project Approach The most effective approach to improvement is project by project. Here, a project is a chronic problem that has been chosen for solution. The project approach can apply to all three processes in the quality trilogy and thus be the basis for a total quality initiative. Setting up the approach for quality improvement, quality planning, or quality control projects comprises three main steps: 

Proving the need (the business case)



Identifying projects



Organizing project teams

Carrying out a quality improvement project involves these tasks: 

Verifying the project need and mission



Diagnosing the causes

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Providing a remedy and proving its effectiveness



Dealing with resistance to change



Instituting controls to hold the gains

Other approaches to improvement include plan, do, study, act; reengineering, theory of constraints, six sigma and lean six sigma. The phases of the six sigma approach are:

Skip to 6 sigma



Define



Measure



Analyze



Improve



Control

3.3 Example and Steps of a Project 

Verify the project need and mission (the Define step in Six Sigma)



Diagnose the Causes (the Measure and Analyze steps in Six Sigma)



Provide a remedy and prove its effectiveness (the Improve step)



Deal with resistance to change (the Improve step in Six Sigma)



Institute controls to hold the gains (the Control step in Six Sigma)

3.4 Proving the Need for an Enterprise wide Quality Improvement Initiative To gain management approval for a major quality initiatives requires several steps: 

Estimate the size of the chronic waste or other quality-related losses



Estimate the savings and other benefits



Calculate the return on investment resulting from improvement



Use a successful case history (a bellweather project) in the organization to justify a broader program

3.5 Experiences with a project by project approach Tell – overview of normal distribution

3.6 Introduction to Six Sigma Improvement The six sigma approach is a collection of managerial and statistical concepts and techniques that focus on reducing variation in processes and preventing deficiencies in product. Most processes are about 3 to 4 sigma. Y = f(X1 … Xn) Thus Y is an output, an effect, a dependent variable; X are inputs, causes, dependent variables. The six sigma approach identifies the process variables that cause variation in product results. Some of these process variables are

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critical to quality, are set at a certain value, and are maintained within a specified range (i.e., “controllable variables”). Other variables cannot be easily maintained around a certain value and are considered uncontrollable or “noise”. Six Sigma uses five phases: Tell – steps to 6 sigma



Define – this step identifies potential projects, selects and defines a project, and sets up a project team



Measure – this step documents the process and measures the current process capability



Analyze – this step collects and analyzes the data to determine the critical process variables



Improve – this step conducts formal experiments, if necessary, to focus on the most important process variables and determine the process settings to optimize product results



Control – this step measures the new process capability, documents the improved process, and institutes controls to maintain the gains

3.7 Define Phase This phase identifies potential projects, selects and defines a project, and sets up the project team. The steps are: 

Identify potential projects



Evaluate projects



Select project



Prepare problem and mission statement for project



Select and launch project team

Identify Potential Projects Project identification consists of nominating, screening, and selecting projects. The focus must be on the vital few opportunities that will increase customer satisfaction and reduce the cost of poor quality. Tell – 80/20 rule

The Pareto principle (the Juran principle) As applied to the cost of poor quality, the Pareto principle (named by J.M. Juran) states that a few contributors to the cost are responsible for the bulk of the cost.

Evaluate Potential Projects An approach that AT&T uses a Pareto priority index (PPI) to evaluate each project: PPI = (savings x probability of success) / (cost x years to completion) High PPI values suggest high priority. The Pareto principle identifies the “vital few” projects for improvement. Beyond the vital few projects are the “useful many” projects.

Selection of Initial Projects

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The first project should be a winner. Ideally, 

The project should deal with a chronic problem



The project should be feasible



The project should be significant



The results should be measurable in money as well as in technological terms



The project should serve as a learning experience for the process of problem solving

Problem and Mission Statement for Project Tell – vision, mission, gap

A problem statement identifies a visible deficiency in a planned outcome. The statement is specific and manageable (names a specific and limited process) and is observable and measurable (describes the size of the problem).

Select and Launch the Project Team A project team usually consists of about six to eight persons drawn from multiple departments and assigned to address the chronic problem selected. Suppliers and customers may also be part of the team. A project team typically has a sponsor (“champion”), a leader, a recorder, team members, and a facilitator. To help launch a team, some organizations develop a charter that defines that the team will do (e.g., mission) and how the team will function (e.g., principles used to make decisions). Teams having a charter (“team reviewed” or “team developed”) have both higher team performance and higher team satisfaction than teams with no charter. In practice, conducting effective team meetings requires certain skills. These skills include planning for team meetings and conducting the meetings. Planning involves matters such as logistics (time, location, use of electronic meeting software), setting meeting objectives, and preparing and distributing an agenda and other documentation. Conducting the meeting requires skills in developing participation, listening, and trust; handing problems (overly talkative members, quiet members, side conversations, absent members); resolving disagreements; and guiding the team to decisions.

3.8 Measure Phase This phase identifies key product parameters and process characteristics and measures the current process capability. The steps are: 

Verity the project need, Y [in Y = f(X)]



Document the process



Plan for data collection



Validate the measurement system



Measure the baseline performance of Y



Measure the process capability

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It is useful to verify the size of the problem in numbers. The scope of the project must be reviewed after the team has met once or twice, to be sure that the mission assigned to the team can be accomplished within, say, about six months. Group Exercise (20-30 min) – ask each group to choose a simple process and create a process map (use stickies)

Document the Process This step records the activities under study and information relating to actual or potential problems. A useful tool is the process flow diagram ( or “process map”). The diagram shows the sequence of steps and their relationships in the process. Study of the flow diagram, in conjunction with other information, enables us to develop a list of product characteristics (or key process output variables (KPOVs) and key process parameters (or key process input variables (KPIVs)). A defect (or disconnect) is any non-fulfillment of intended use requirements. A symptom is an observable phenomenon arising from and accompanying a defect. A theory is an unproved assertion of reasons for the existence of defects and symptoms. Usually, several theories are advanced to explain the presence of the observed phenomenon. A cause is a proven reason for the existence of the defect. Multiple causes are common, in which case they follow the Pareto principle; i.e., the vital few causes will dominate the rest. A remedy is a change that can successfully eliminate or neutralize a cause of defects. The diagnostic journey has three steps: 

Study the symptoms surrounding the defects as a basis for theorizing about causes.



Theorize on the causes of these symptoms.



Collect and analyze data to test the hypotheses and thereby determine the causes.

Plan for Data Collection “In God we trust, all others bring data” Deming

Chronic problems are usually not easy to solve and require careful planning and collection of data to confirm and analyze the input and output variables. This “management by facts” concept is basic to all problem solving approaches. Planning for data collection involves matters such as where in the process data will be collected, who will provide the data and how often, data collection forms, data accuracy, separation of data into categories (“stratification”) and whether the data are sufficient in content and quality for the data analysis tools.

Quantification of Symptoms The frequency and intensity of symptoms are of great significance in pointing to directions for analysis. The Pareto principle applies to several levels of diagnosis: finding the vital few defects, finding the vital few symptoms of a defect, and finding the vital few causes of one symptom.

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Formulation of Theories This process has three steps: generation of theories, arrangement of theories, and choice of theories to be tested. 

Generation of theories – the best sources of theories are the line managers, the technologists, the line supervisors, and the workforce. A systematic way to generate theories is the brainstorming technique. Potential contributors are assembled for the purpose of generating theories. Creating thinking is encouraged by asking each person, in turn, to propose a theory. No criticism or discussion of ideas is allowed, and all ideas are recorded. Following the brainstorming session, the resulting list of theories is critically reviewed.



Arrangement of theories – As the list of theories grows, it is essential to create an orderly arrangement. You can list them in categories, or use an Ishikawa cause-and-effect (or “fishbone”) diagram. The causeand-effect diagram provides information for identifying the input and output variables.



Choice of theories to be tested – In practice, the improvement team reaches a consensus on the most likely theory for testing.

Class Exercise (15 min) – ask for a problem and lead class through a fishbone diagram

Validate the Measurement System The variation in observed measurements from a process is from the variation of the process itself and variation of the measurement system. Often the variation of the measurement system is assumed to be zero or at least small compared to process variation. This assumption is typically made without any data. The capability of the measurement system must be recognized as important and evaluated before measuring the capability of the process. When necessary, a complete measurement capability study can involve matters such as reproducibility, repeatability, accuracy, stability, and linearity.

Measure the Process Capability Process capability refers to the inherent ability of a process to meet the specification limits for a product. In the measure phase, the initial process capability is established by obtaining measurements and observing how the process variability compares to the specification limits. For a static process to be capable at the six-sigma level, the specification limits must be at least six sigma above and below the process mean.

3.9 Analyze Phase This phase analyzes past and current performance data to identify the causes of variation and process performance. The steps are: 

Plan for data collection



Collect and analyze data



Test theories (hypotheses) on sources of variation and cause-effect relationships (i.e., identify the determinants of process performance)

Planning for Data Collection The key issue is not “how do we collect data?”. Rather, the key issue is “how do

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we generate useful information?”. To generate information we need to: 

Formulate precisely the question we are trying to answer



Collect data relating to that question



Analyze the data to determine the factual answer to the question



Present the data in a way that clearly communicates the answer to the question

To generate useful information, planning for good data collection proceeds along the following lines: 

Establish data collection objectives. Formulate the question or theory.



Decide what to measure. How will data be communicated and analyzed.



Decide how to measure a population or sample



Collect data with a minimum of bias

Collect and Analyze Data Many managers harbor deep-seated beliefs that most defects are caused during operations and specifically are due to worker errors, i.e., that defects are mainly worker-controllable. The facts seldom bear this out, but the belief persists. A study to determine whether defects are primarily management-controllable or worker-controllable (“management” here includes not only people in supervisory positions but also others who influence quality, e.g., design engineers, process engineers, buyers, etc.). In general, defects are more than 80% management controllable and less than 20% worker controllable.

Test Theories of Management Controllable Problems Basic to the concept of diagnosis is the factual approach – the use of facts rather than opinions, to reach conclusions about the causes of a quality problem. 

Flow-diagram – preparing a flow-diagram helps us understand the progression of steps in a process.



Process-capability analysis – To test the theory that “the process can‟t meet the specifications” measurements from the process must be taken and analyzed to determine the amount of variability in the process. This variability must be compared to the specification limits.



Product and process dissection – involves taking measurements at intermediate steps in the process to discover at which step the defect appears.



Stream-to-stream analysis – to meet production volume requirements, several sources of production (“streams”) are often necessary. Streams take the form of different machines, machine operators, call center operator shifts, suppliers, etc. Although the streams may seem identical, the resulting products may not be. Stream-to-stream analysis consists of recording and examining data separately for each stream. Stream-to-stream analysis uses the

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concept of “stratification”. Stratification separates data into categories and helps to identify which categories (strata) are the main contributors to the problem. 

Time-to-time analysis – includes (1) a simple plot of data on a timescale; (2) analysis of the time between abnormalities or problems; (3) analysis of the rate of change, or “drift” of a characteristic; and (4) cumulative data techniques with respect to time. In analyzing time-to-time variations the length of time between abnormalities can be a major clue to the cause. Within many streams, there is a time-to-time “drift”. Control charts are a powerful diagnostic tool. Data are plotted chronologically, and the chart then shows whether the variability from sample to sample is due to chance or assignable causes of variation.



Simultaneous dissection – some products exhibit several types of variation, e.g., piece to piece, within piece, and time to time. The multivari chart is a clever tool for analyzing such variation. In this chart, a vertical line depicts the range of variation within a single piece of product.



Defect-concentration analysis – a different form of piece-to-piece variation is the defect-concentration study used for attribute types of defects. The purpose is to discover whether defects are located in the same physical area.



Association searches – sometimes diagnosis can be advanced by analyzing data relating to symptoms to some theory of causation.



 Highlight types of errors

o

Correlation analysis is an approach that plots data that relate to the incidence of symptoms of the problem to values of a potential causal variable.

o

Ranking – in this approach, past or current data are collected on two or more variables of a problem and summarized in a table to see whether any pattern exists.

Test theories by collection of new data – in some cases, discovery of causes requires careful examination of additional stages in the process: o

Measurement of the intermediate stages of a single operation

o

Measurement following noncontrolled operations

o

Measurement of additional or related properties of the product or process

o

Study of worker methods

Test theories involving human error - four categories of potential human error are: o

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Inadvertent errors – workers are unable to avoid inadvertent errors because of human inability to maintain attention. Inadvertent errors are: 

Unintentional – the worker does not want to make errors



Unwitting – the worker is unaware of having made

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an error

o

o

o

Tell – 5 Whys



Unpredictable – there is nothing systematic as to when the error will be made, what type of error will be made, or which worker will make the error (random pattern)



Remedies for inadvertent errors include: (1) reducing the extent of dependence on human attention and (2) helping workers remain attentive

Technique errors – these errors arise because the worker lacks some essential technique, skill or knowledge needed to prevent the error from happening. They are: 

Unintentional



Specific – unique to certain defect types



Consistent – workers who lack the essential technique consistently make more errors than workers who possess the technique



Unavoidable – inferior workers are unable to match the performance of the superior workers because the former do not know “what to do differently”

Conscious errors – many of these types of errors are management initiated because managers keep shifting priorities. Workers also commit these types of errors. These types of errors are: 

Witting – the worker is aware of the error



Intentional – deliberate intention to err



Persistent – intent to keep making the error

Communication errors – because of a failure to communicate with the employee (omitted, inhibited, transmission errors)

The Japanese concluded that most quality-related problems could be solved with seven basic tools: the cause-effect diagram, stratification analysis, check sheet, histogram, scatter diagram, Pareto analysis, and control charts. Later, seven new tools were recommended: affinity diagram, tree diagram (systematic diagram), process decision program chart, matrix diagram, interrelationship digraph (relations diagram), prioritization matrix (matrix data analysis), and activities network diagram (arrow diagram).

Theory of Constraints Tell – Mention “The Goal”

Another broad approach to improvement is the theory of constraints (TOC). A constraint is the weakest link in a system (process) and therefore should be the focus for improvement. Constraints are mostly policy (procedures, past practice) but may also be physical (machines, people, other resources). TOC identifies the constraint(s) and analyze the system to ensure that all parts are aligned and adjusted to support the maximum effectiveness of the constraint. The five steps to the theory of constraints are (not in the book): 

Identify the system‟s constraint(s)

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Determine a strategy to exploit that constraint



Subordinate all other actions to the constraint



Elevate the constraint (more resources or split function)



Go to step 1

3.10 Improve Phase Tell – usually use brain storming and nominal group technique

This phase designed a remedy, proves its effectiveness, and prepares an implementation plan. The steps are: 

Evaluate alternative remedies



If necessary, design formal experiments to optimize process performance



Design a remedy



Prove the effectiveness of the remedy



Deal with resistance to change



Transfer the remedy to operations

Design of Experiments Experiments in the laboratory or outside world may be necessary to determine and analyze the dominant causes of a quality problem and to design a remedy. Five types of experiments are: 

Evaluating suspected dominant variables



Exploratory experiments – conducted to verify the vital few causes and dominant variables, and laboratory and production experiments are conducted to generate a mathematical model of the process and optimize process performance. These experiments require definition of the objective, response (output) variables, independent (input) variables, test levels for the variables, and the selection of the design of the experiment. Has a high probability of identifying the dominant causes of variability.



Production experiments (evolutionary operations) – demonstration of the key process variables under shop conditions. When justified, a “pilot plant” may be set up to evaluate process variables. However, the final determination of the effect of process variables must often be done during the regular production run by informally observing results and making any changes that are necessary. Evolutionary operations (EVOP) introduces small changes into the variables according to a planned pattern of changes. It is a highly structured form of production experimentation. The steps are: o

Select two or three independent variables that are likely to influence quality

o

Change these steps according to a plan

o

After the second repetition o ft he plan (cycle 2) and each succeeding cycle, calculate the effects

o

When one or more of the effects is significant, change the midpoints of the variables

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o

Continue moving the midpoint of the EVOP plan and adjust the ranges as necessary

o

When a maximum has been obtained or the rate of gain is too slow, drop the current variables from the plan and run a new plan with different variables



Response to surface experiments



Simulation – a system model is developed and translated into a computer program. This program not onjly defines the relationship between input and output variables but also makes provision for storing the distribution of each input variable. The computer then selects values at random from each input distribution and combines these values, using the relationship defined, to generate a simulated value of the output variable. Each repetition of this process results in a simulated output result. These can then be formed into a frequency distribution. The payoff is to make changes in the input variables or the relationships, run another simulation, and observe the effect of the change.

Design a Remedy The remedy must fulfill the original project mission, particularly with respect to meeting customer needs. This step identifies the customers, defines the needs, and proves the effectiveness of the remedy.

Prove Effectiveness of the Remedy Before a remedy is finally adopted, it must be proven effective. Two steps are involved: 

Preliminary evaluation of the remedy under conditions that simulate the real world.



Final evaluation under real-world conditions

Deal with Resistance to Change Change consists of two parts (1) technological change and (2) a social consequence of the technological change. People often voice objections to technological change, although the true reason for their objection is the social effect. To achieve change, we must: 

Be aware that we are dealing with a pattern of human habits, beliefs, and traditions (culture) that may differ from our own.



Discover the exact social effects of the proposed technological changes

Rules for introducing change: 

Provide for participation



Establish the need for the change



Provide enough time o

Start small

o

Avoid surprises

o

Choosing the right year

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Keep the proposals free of excess baggage



Work with the recognized leadership of the culture



Treat people with dignity



Reverse the positions



Deal directly with resistance

Transfer the Remedy to Operations Transfer to operations may include revisions in operating standards and procedures; changes in staffing and responsibilities; additional equipment, materials and supplies; and extensive training on the why and how o fthe changes.

3.11 Control Phase In this phase, we design and implement certain activities to hold the gains of improvement. The steps are: 

Design controls and document the improved process



Validate the measurement system



Determine the final process capability



Implement and monitor the process controls

Design Controls and Document the Improved Process Control during operations is done through use of a feedback loop – a measurement of actual performance, comparison with the standard of performance, and action on the difference.

Validate the Measurement System The measurement system for the improved process must be evaluated and made capable.

Determine the Final Process Capability To the extent that is economically feasible, the process changes should be designed to be irreversible.

Implement and Monitor the Improved Process In this step, the improved process is placed into operation, and the control steps described are used to monitor process conditions and product performance. The team should provide for measuring the cost of poor quality to confirm that the remedies have worked.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 4 – Operational Quality Planning & Sales Income Contribution of Quality to Sales Income For profit-making organizations, the contribution of quality to sales income occurs by several means:

Ask – what impact does better quality have on sales?



Increasing market share



Securing premium prices



Achieving economics of scale through increased production



Achieving unique competitive advantages that cement brand loyalties

Quality and Financial Performance Ask – is this statement so?

In the long run, the most important factor affecting business performance is quality relative to the competition. Businesses having both a larger market share and better quality earn much higher returns than businesses with a smaller market share and inferior quality.

Ask – is this statement true? Why?

Quality affects relative price, but separate from quality, market share has little effect on price. According to the PIMS data, relative quality has little effect on cost. Apparently, the savings from efforts to reduce scrap and rework (deficiencies) are offset by the increased cost of product attributes (features) that sell the product.

Achieving Quality Superiority To achieve quality leadership for a product or a service, an organization must focus on one or more parameters of quality such as performance features, long life, ease of use, freedom from deficiencies, personal service or fast service. In other cases the superiority can be translated into users‟ economics, e.g., an automobile achieves higher mileage per gallon than a competitors. Actions must view quality relative to the competition.

Competitive Benchmarking Ask – what is benchmarking?

Tell - Steps

A benchmark is a point of reference by which performance is judged or measured. Measuring quality relative to the competition; for quality leadership, the benchmark must be the “best”. The initial benchmarking steps are: 1.

Determining the characteristics to be benchmarked

2.

Determining the organizations from which data will be collected

3.

Collecting and analyzing the data

4.

Determining the “best in class”

Strategic plans are then prepared to develop or adapt the “best practices”.

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Ask – who will a satisfied customer buy from? Ask – who will a loyal customer buy from? Who will they not buy from?

Customer Satisfaction Versus Customer Loyalty A satisfied customer will buy from our company but also from our competitors; a loyal customer will buy primarily (or exclusively) from our company. A dissatisfied customer is unlikely to be loyal, but surprisingly, a satisfied customer is not necessarily loyal.

Customer Loyalty and Retention Ask – why do companies want loyal customers? What are the benefits? Group Exercise (20 min) – pick a company known for having a loyal following. How do they do it? What would it be like to work there? Tell – tell 9 steps

Loyal customers not only provide continuing sales revenue but also contribute other benefits: 

Adding new sales by referring potential customers



Paying (often) a price premium



Buying other products from the company



Cooperating in the development of new products



Reducing company internal costs such as selling costs

The nine actions below are collectively a road map for achieving high customer loyalty: 1.

Continually assess customer needs and translate these needs into product improvements – product development must be based on a thorough understanding of customer needs. Market research to define customer needs must be ongoing.

2.

Periodically assess market standing relative to competition – This process typically means conducting multiattribute market research studies on quality. These studies not only provide status in the marketplace but also identify differences in satisfaction that are likely to result in customer defections. This research should incorporate one or more questions on the likelihood that the customer will repurchase or recommend the product.

3.

Track retention and loyalty information – Sun Microsystems (Lynch, 1998) calculates a customer loyalty index based on four components of loyalty questions: customer satisfaction, likelihood to repurchase, likelihood to recommend, and customer delight. It is useful to set goals for customer retention and customer loyalty.

4.

Determine the drives of customer loyalty – these drivers are the specific elements that have a significant impact on customer loyalty.

5.

Determine the impact on profit of reducing customer defections – the sales revenue from a loyal customer measured over the period of potential repeat purchases can be dramatic. Research concluded that a five percentage point decrease in the defection rate can increase profit by 35% to 95%, depending on the service industry involved.

6.

Understand the impact of handling complaints on the likelihood of repurchasing – Customer satisfaction with the handling of complaints has a significant impact on repurchasing and intention to recommend purchase to others.

7.

Analyze complaints – complaints are an early indicator of potential

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customer defections. The frequency and nature of complaints must be analyzed. 8.

Determine the reasons for customer defections – This step means conducting research to discover the reasons for defections by asking customers why they left. But the reasons stated by customers are often not the real reasons (e.g., price is often mentioned as a key reason, but probing usually reveals other reasons). A “failure analysis” (chapter 7) can help to discover the causes of defections (5 whys).

9.

Present the results of loyalty analyses for action – market research and loyalty analysis results must be acted upon if they are contribute to customer retention and loyalty. It is useful to relate satisfaction research results to operational processes or to specific activities.

Economic Worth of a Loyal Customer Tell

The sales revenue from a loyal customer measured over the period of repeat purchases can be dramatic. The economic worth is calculated as the net present value (NPV) of the net cash flow (profits) over the expected lifetime of repeat purchases. Profits generally rise as the customer defection rate (customers who do not repurchase) decreases.

Level of Satisfaction to Retain Present Customers Tell

Sometimes acceptable levels of customer satisfaction with the product still result in a significant loss of new sales. In some industries, more than 90% of customers report that they are satisfied or very satisfied with the product – but repurchase rates are only about 35%. Another dimension of this phenomenon is the level of customer satisfaction with the handling of complaints.

Tell

Group Exercise (30 min) – form in to two groups. Develop arguments for eCommerce helping customer loyalty versus eCommerce hurting customer loyalty. Assign spokespersons and debate.

Customers who have a problem but are unsatisfied with the resolution (“recovery”) are unlikely to repurchase (30%). Customers who are very satisfied with the handling of complaints have much higher intention to repurchase (79%) and recommend purchase to others (88%). Finally, note that some satisfied customers with no problem will not repurchase.

Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce (or e-commerce) is buying and selling products across telecommunications networks. Three dimensions are emerging. First, ecommerce can contact large numbers of customers and present many products and options (“reach”). Second, e-commerce provides great depth of information to customers and can collect much information about customers (“richness”). Third, the depth of information provided by e-commerce (e.g., alternative products) helps to promote loyalty by providing customers with objective information for making decisions (“affiliation”).

Life Cycle Costs Tell

A life-cycle cost can be defined as the “total cost to the user of purchasing, using, and maintaining a product over its life”. A study of all the cost elements can lead to redesign of a product that could result in a significantly lower life-

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cycle cost, perhaps at the expense of a small increase in purchase price. These customers are urged to make purchasing decisions by comparing life-cycle costs for competing products. An associated concept, user failure cost, calculates the cost to the user of failures during the product life. Ask – why do we focus more on initial price versus lifecycle costs? (cultural?)

Two reasons for the slow pace of adoption predominate. First, estimating the future costs of operation and maintenance is difficult. A greater obstacle is the cultural resistance of purchasing managers, marketing people, and product designers. The skills, habits, and practices of these people have long been built around the concept that the original purchase price has primary importance.

Spectrum of Customers For purposes of planning for quality, we will identify three types of customers: Tell



Those who emphasize initial purchase price as equal to or more important than quality



Those who evaluate alternative products on both initial price and quality simultaneously



Those who emphasize obtaining “the best”

Planning for Product Quality to Generate Sales Income Continuous improvement

This emphasis on understanding customer needs as a prerequisite to meeting sales goals addresses the reality that warehouses filled with products that meet specifications and are competitively priced but don‟t satisfy customers‟ needs as well as a competitor‟s product does. Product features must satisfy customer needs, but features that delight customers today typically become the expected features of tomorrow.

A Quality Planning Roadmap for Ensuring Product Salability Skip

The quality planning roadmap presents a framework for planning (or replanning) new products (or product revisions). This roadmap applies to both the manufacturing and service sectors and to products for both external and internal customers. 1)

Establish the project. This step has three substeps (can include competitive analysis, benchmarking and deployment of goals): a)

Create a mission statement – the purpose, scope, and goals of the project

b)

Establish a team to do the planning

c)

Plan the execution of the project – responsibilities, schedules, resources, and follow-up

2)

Identify the customers – the customer is anyone who is affected by the product (not just the purchaser). This step includes identifying both the external and internal customers.

3)

Discover customers‟ needs – this step has three substeps (may include

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multiattribute studies, focus groups, questionnaires, site visits, and spreadsheets):

4)

5)

6)

a)

Plan how to discover customer needs – e.g., market research, customer complaints, dealer input, competitive evaluations

b)

Collect information on customer needs

c)

Analyze and prioritize customer needs

Develop the product (may use competitive analysis, reliability, safety and value analysis, prototype tests, and spreadsheets): a)

Group together related customer needs

b)

Identify alternative product features

c)

Develop detailed product features and goals

d)

Finalize the product design

Develop the process (flowcharts, process capability studies, pilot runs, and spreadsheets) a)

Identify alternative process features

b)

Develop detailed process features and goals

c)

Establish initial process capability

d)

Finalize the process design

Develop process controls and transfer to operations a)

Identify controls needed and design feedback loop

b)

Optimize self-control and self-inspection

c)

Establish audit of process

d)

Verify process capability in operations

e)

Transfer plans to operations

Introduction to Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Tell

The importance of design has led to the adaptation of six sigma to design projects. Design for six sigma (DFSS) consists of five steps denoted (DMADV): 1)

Define (D) – identify the new (or modified) product to be designed and define a project team and project plan

2)

Measure (M) – plan and conduct research to understand customer needs and related requirements

3)

Analyze (A) – develop alternative design concepts, select a concept for high-level design, and predict the capability of the design to meet requirements

4)

Design (D) – develop the detailed design, evaluate its capability, and plan a pilot test

5)

Verify (V) – conduct the pilot test, analyze the results, and make design changes if needed

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Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Design for six sigma (DFSS) is focused on creating new or modified designs that are capable of significantly higher levels of performance (approaching six sigma). The define-measure-analyze-design-verify (DMADV) sequence is a design methodology applicable to developing new or revised products, services and processes. Define Phase The Define Phase sets the tone for the entire design product; it establishes the goals, charter and infrastructure. During this phase, activites are shared between the management team an dthe chartered project team. Managmeent as the ultimate responsibility to define the design problem: what is to be modified, redesigned, or newly created. Projects are nominated consistent with the overall business strategy and selected based upon their optimal contribution to that strategy. A key task in the Define Phase is the crease the initial business case that validates the selection rationale and establishes the business justification through reduced product cost, increased sales, or entirely new market opportunities. The management team nominates a Black Belt to lead the design project. The Champion, in conjunction with the Black Belt, is responsible for selecting a cross-functional team that will conduct all activities to complete the design and carry it into production. Full responsibility for design success is transferred to the Black Belt and his/her team. Management participation continues throughout the design effort through the Champion‟s advisory and monitoring role that includes periodic updates by the Black Belt and team. The design team establishes the project plan that includes resource allocation, task lists, and project timelines. In summary, the key deliverables are: 

Established Design Project



Project Charter – including project mission statement and design objectives



Project Plan



Initial Business Case

Measure Phase The measure phase is concerned mainly with identifying the key customers, determining what their critical needs are, and what are the measurable criticalto-quality requirements (CTQs) necessary for a successfully designed product, service, or process. An initial assessment of markets and customer segmentation by various factors is required to identify the key customers. This assessment is normally completed by the marketing organization and is then reviewed and verified by the design team. However, it is the design team‟s responsibility to complete the customer needs analysis and compile its results into a prioritized tabulation of customer needs. Methods to determine customer needs include focus groups, interviews, and surveys of key customer groups. The Critical Incident

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technique, customers are asked to list specific incidents or scenarios in which they use or want to use the product, service or process. Their list is validated internally as well as across customers. Through interviews and focus groups, customer needs are then determined for each of the specific incidents or scenarios. The design team transforms the critical customer needs into measurable terms from a design perspective. These translated needs become the critical-toquality requirements (CTQs) that must be satisfied by the design solution. Competitive benchmarking and creative internal development are two additional sources for CTQs. Once the prioritized list of CTQs is produced, the design team proceeds to determine the baseline performance of the existing product and production process. Finally, a design scorecard is created that tracks the design evolution toward a six sigma product performance. This tool is used to predict the final product defect level will be after integrating all design elements. In summary, the key deliverables are: 

Prioritized list of customer needs



Prioritized list of CTQs



Current baseline performance



o

MSA

o

Product capability

o

Production process capability, supported by process flow diagram

o

Product and process risk assessment (using a design FMEA and a process FMEA)

Initial design scorecard

Analyze Phase The main purpose of the Analyze Phase is to select a high-level design form several design alternatives and develop the detailed design requirements against which a detailed design will be optimized in the subsequent design phase. The starting point in the high-level design is to perform a functional analysis of the CTQs established in the measure phase that results in a high-level functional design. The design team develops several high0-level design alternatives that represent different functional solutions to the stated functional design requirement. These alternatives are analyzed against a set of evaluative criteria and one of them, or a combination of alternatives, is selected to carry forward as the preferred “high-level design”. Several of the tools used by the team in the measure phase to establish baseline performance are again applied to predict the performance of the highlevel design against the CTQs. Process capability studies, product functionality and capability analysis, risk analysis, and financial analysis are the analytical instruments used to predict performance.

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The design team performance a final analysis that results in a “best fit design”. The key deliverables are: 

Design alternatives



Selected high-level design



Results high-level design capability / risk analysis



Best-fit design



Detailed design requirements

Design Phase The design phase builds on the detailed design requirements to deliver an optimum detailed functional design that also meets manufacturing service requirements. Designed experiments (DOEs) are conducted to optimize the detail design around key design parameters. Using appropriate design methods and tools [design for manufacturing (DFM) and design for assembly (DFA), reliability and serviceability analysis], the design team examines the capabilities of the current production process and related systems against the new design. A final risk analysis using traditional tools is conducted. Based upon these analyses, a final design is developed to match the projected operational (manufacturing and service) capabilities. The design phase is concluded when the design team conducts a design vertification test (DVT) that validates the detail design by using such tools as simulation, prototyping, and pilot testing. The results of the DVT are summarized and presented in a formal design review. The design scorecard is updated again with the final design information and the latest DVT results. The key deliverables are: 

Optimized design parameters (nominal values that are most robust)



Prediction model



Optimal tolerances and design settings



Detailed functional design



Reliability / lifetime analysis results



DVT results



Updated design scorecard

Verify Phase The purpose of the verity phase is to ensure that the new design can be manufactured and field supported within the required quality, reliability, and cost parameters. Upon completion of the several iterations that occur during DVT and pilot runs, the design is solidified and a ramp-up to full-scale production is accomplished via the manufacturing verification test (MVT) to highlight any potential production issues or problems. A key task is to record all design documents and process control plans (including guidelines for self-control) into a robust set of standard operating

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procedures (SOPs). A final design scorecard should be completed and all key findings recorded and archived for future reference. Key deliverables” 

Manufacturing verification test (MVT) results (including pilot scale production processes and scale up decision)



Transition documents



Control plans (including plans for self-control and mistake proofing)



Final design scorecard



Final project report (including established audit plan)

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 5 – Quality Control

Teaching notes

Definition of Control Control refers to the process employed to meet standards consistently. The control process involves observing actual performance, comparing it with some standard, and then taking action if the observed performance is significantly different from the standard. The control process is a feedback loop. Control involves a universal sequence of steps as follows: 1.

Choose the control subject (i.e. choose what to regulate)

2.

Establish measurement

3.

Establish standards of performance: product and process goals

4.

Measure actual performance

5.

Compare actual measured performance to standards

6.

Take action on the difference

Three purposes for control process 

Maintain the gains from improvement projects



Promote analysis of process variation, based on data, to identify improvement opportunities



Allow team members to clarify their responsibilities and work to achieve a state of self-control

Measurement Quality measurement is central to the process of quality control. The following principles can help to develop effective measurements for quality: 1.

Define the purpose and use that will be made of the measurement

2.

Emphasize customer-related measurements; be sure to include both internal and external customers

3.

Focus on measurements that are useful – not just easy to collect

4.

Provide for participation from all levels in both the planning and implementation of measurements

5.

Provide for making measurements as close as possible to the activities they impact

6.

Provide not only concurrent indicators but also leading and lagging indicators

7.

Define, in advance, plans for data collection and storage, analysis, and presentation of measurements

8.

Seek simplicity in data recording, analysis, and presentation. Simple check sheets, coding of data, and automatic gaging are useful. Graphical presentations can be especially effective.

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9.

Provide for periodic evaluations of the accuracy, integrity and usefulness of measurements

10. Realize that measurements alone cannot improve in products and processes

Self-Control To be in a state of self-control, people must be provided with: 1.

Knowledge of what they are supposed to do

2.

Knowledge of their performance

3.

Means of regulating performance if they fail to meet the goals. These means must always include both the authority to regulate and the ability to regulate by varying either (a) the process under the person‟s authority or (b) the person‟s own conduct

If all the foregoing parameters have been met, the person is said to be in a state of self-control and can properly be held responsible for any deficiencies in performance. Self-control provides useful criteria for evaluating plans before a task is executed. Schonberger (1999) describes the concept of a self-adjusting system where front-line personnel employ simple, direct methods continuously. He proposes four elements: 1.

Process capacity management to minimize queues (“kanban”)

2.

Operating plotting of process data (“statistical process control”)

3.

Prevention of errors (“failsafing”)

4.

Quality checks before passing work output to the next worker (“source inspection”)

The Control Subjects for Quality To identify and choose quality control subjects, several principles apply: 1.

Quality control subjects should be aligned and linked with customer parameters, that is, the subjects should directly measure customer needs, satisfaction, and loyalty or measure product and process features that correlate with these customer parameters. External customers who affect sales income are paramount.

2.

Defining work processes in terms of objectives, process steps, process customers and customer needs

3.

Quality control subjects should recognize both components of the definition of quality, i.e., freedom from deficiencies and product features

4.

Potential quality control subjects can be identified by obtaining ideas from both customers and employees

5.

Quality control subjects must be viewed by those who will be measured as valid, appropriate, and easy to understand when translated into numbers.

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Establish Measurement We muse create a system of measurement consisting of: 

A unit of measure: the unit used to report the value of a control subject



A sensor: a method or instrument that can carry out the evaluation and state the findings in terms of the unit of measure

Units of measure for product and process performance are usually expressed in technological terms. Units of measure for product deficiencies usually take the form of a fraction: Number of occurrences / opportunity for occurance The numerator may be in such terms as defects per million, number of field failures, or cost of warranty charges. The denominator may be in such terms as number of units products, dollar volume of sales, number of units in service, or length of time in service. Units of measure for product features are more difficult to create Measurement scales are part of the measurement system. The most useful scale is the ratio scale in which we record the actual amounts of a parameter such as weight. An interval scale records ordered numbers but lacks an arithmetic origin such as zero. An ordinal scale records information in ranked categories. The nominal scale classifies objects into categories without an ordering or origin point.

The Sensor The sensor is the means used to make the actual measurement. Most sensors are designed to provide information in terms of units of measure. For operational control subjects, the sensors are usually technological instruments or human beings employed as instruments (e.g., inspectors, auditors); for managerial subjects, the sensors are data systems. Choosing the sensor includes defining how the measurements will be made – how, when, and who will make the measurements – and the criteria for taking action. A useful tool for operationalizing self-control and the feedback loop is the control plan, also called a process control plan.

Establish Standards of Performance Each control subject must have a quality goal. The goals should be: 

Legitimate: have official status



Customer focused: external and internal



Measurable: numbers



Understandable: clear to all



In alignment: integrated with higher levels



Equitable: fair for all individuals

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In organizing for control, a useful technique is to establish a limited number of control stations for measurement. Each such control station is then given the responsibility of carrying out the steps of the feedback loop for a selected list of control subjects. They are usually located at one of several principal junctures: 

At changes of jurisdiction (between companies or departments)



Before embarking on an irreversible path



After creation of a critical quality



At dominant process variables, e.g., the vital few



At natural windows, for economical control

It is essential to measure both the quality of the output going to the external customer (“final yield”) and the quality at earlier points in the process, including the “first-time yield”. For each control station, it is necessary to define the work to be done: which control subjects are to be measured; goals and standards to be met; procedures, instruments to be used; data to be recorded; and decisions to be made, including the criteria and responsibility for making each decision.

Compare to Standards This phase of the control process consists of comparing the measurement to the goal and deciding if any difference is significant enough to justify action. The criteria for taking action (or not taking action) should be numerically defined before measurements are taken, and training should be provided to ensure that the criteria are properly applied.

Statistical Significance An observed difference between performance and a goal can be the result of (1) a real difference due to some cause, or (2) an apparent difference arising from random variation. Knowing the pattern of differences over time is essential to drawing correct conclusions. A statistical control chart is used to help evaluation statistical significance. A control chart is a graphic comparison of process performance data to computed “control limits” drawn as limit lines on the chart. The process performance data usually consists of groups of measurements (“rational subgroups”) selected in regular sequence of production. A prime use of the control chart is to detect assignable causes (special causes) of variation in the process. Process variations are traceable to two kinds of causes: (1) random, i.e., due solely to chance (“common”); and (2) assignable, i.e., due to specific “special” causes. Ideally, only random (also called “common”) causes should be present in a process. A process that is operating without assignable causes of variation is said to be “in a state of statistical process control” (or “in control”). The control chart distinguishes between random and assignable causes of variation through its choice of control limits. These are calculated from the laws of probability so that highly improbable random variations are presumed to be due not to random causes, but to assignable causes. When the actual variation exceeds the control limits, it is a signal that assignable causes entered the process and the process should be investigated. Variation within the control

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limits means that only random causes are present. Assignable causes are typically sporadic and often originate in single variables, making diagnosis easier.

Economic Significance Tools such as the statistical control chart serve several purposes. This type of tool provides an early warning of impending problems in the product. The presence of assignable causes does mean that the process is unstable, but sometimes assignable causes are so numerous that it is necessary to establish priorities for action based on economic significance and related parameters.

Take Action on the Difference In the closing step of the feedback loop, action is taken to restore the process to a state of meeting the goal. Action may be needed for three types of conditions: 1.

Elimination of chronic sources of deficiency – the feedback loop is not suitable for dealing with chronic problems.

2.

Elimination of sporadic sources of deficiency – the feedback look is well designed for this purpose. In these cases, the cardinal issue is determining which changes caused the sporadic difference. Discovery of those changes, plus action to restore control, can usually be carried out by local operating supervisors using troubleshooting procedures.

3.

Continuous process regulation to minimize variation.

Troubleshooting Troubleshooting (also called “firefighting”) is the process of dealing with sporadic problems and restoring quality to the original level. Troubleshooting is diagnostic and remedial action applied to sporadic problems and involves three steps: 1.

Identify the problem – identification means pinpointing the problem in terms of a single process indicator, the time of occurrence, and its effect.

2.

Diagnose the problem – means investigating, developing, and testing theories for the cause of the problem.

3.

Take remedial action – remediation requires taking steps to remove the cause identified in step 2.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 6 – Process Management

Teaching notes

Functional Versus Process Management A process is a collection of activities that converts inputs into outputs or results. Achieving business goals depends mostly on large, complex processes that go across functional departments. A primary process is a collection of cross-functional activities that are essential for external customer satisfaction and achieve the mission of the organization. These activities integrate people, materials, energy, equipment and information. The products and services furnished to external customers are produced mostly by cross-functional primary processes. Problems often arise because these managers focus on meeting functional objectives rather than process objectives. Problems frequently arise at the functional interfaces between departments (the “white space”). The greatest opportunities for improvement exist at the cross-functional process level.

Process Management Process management is an approach for planning, controlling and improving the primary processes in an organization by using permanent process teams. The distinguishing features of process management are: 

Emphasis on customer needs rather than functional needs



Focus on a few key cross-functional processes



Process owners who are responsible for all aspects of the process



Permanent cross-functional process teams responsible for operating the process (permanent for the life of the process)



Application at the process level of the trilogy of quality processes – quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement

Process management replaces the hierarchical vertical organization with a horizontal view of the organization. Full process management is still a minority form of management (maybe 30%?) Process management starts when upper management selects key processes, appoints process owners and teams, and provides process mission statements and goals. 1)

2)

Initiation of business process management a)

Select processes

b)

Identify owners and teams

Planning a)

Process definition

b)

Customer needs and process flow

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3)

4)

c)

Process measurement

d)

Process analysis

e)

Process design / redesign

Transfer a)

Planning for implementation problems

b)

Implementation action planning

c)

Plan deployment

Operational management a)

Process quality control

b)

Process quality improvement

c)

Periodic process review and assessment

Selection of Processes Upper management should select a few primary processes for the process management approach. The selection of processes is based on the critical success factors of the organization. Candidate processes can then be ranked by assessing the importance of the process with regard to the critical factors and also the current process performance.

Organize the Process Team After selecting the processes, the (quality counsel?) appoints a process owner who is responsible for all aspects of process performance. Specifically, 

Be responsible for making the process effective, efficient and adaptable



Schedule, set agendas, and conduct process team meetings



Establish cooperative working relationships among all functions contributing to the process



Guide the process team in analyzing the current process and achieving improvement



Make assignments to team members



Resolve or escalate issues that may hinder improvement



Assure that team members receive training in process management



Manage the implementation of process changes



Schedule process reviews



Report progress of the process team to the quality counsil

For critical cross-functional processes, the responsibility is heavy because the owner does not have line responsibility and authority for all of the component activities of the process. But the owner is responsible for the overall performance of a process. In practice, the owner focuses on establishing working relationships through a process team, installing quality concepts, resolving or escalating cross-functional issues and encouraging continuous progress. The typical owner is from a high level of management is often either 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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the manager with the most resources in the process or the one who is affected most when problems occur. Some processes have an “executive owner” serving as a champion and a “working owner” responsible for day-to-day activities. The process team includes a manager or supervisor from each major function with work activities in the process. The process team is permanent. Typically, the team has a maximum of eight members and a facilitator.

The Planning Phase of Process Management The planning phase consists of five steps: 1)

Define the current process

2)

Discover customer needs and flowchart the process

3)

Establish process measurements

4)

Analyze process data

5)

Design (or redesign) the process

Define the Current Process This process definition step establishes the process mission, goals, scope and major subprocesses of the current (or “as is”) process. This step in process definition should “bound” the process in terms of where the process starts, which activities are included (and excluded) and where the process ends.

Discover Customer Needs and Flowchart the Process The team identifies the customers (i.e., all external and internal parties who are affected by the process), determines customer needs, and prioritizes those needs. A more detailed flowchart (a “process map”) is prepared showing the major activities, key customers and suppliers, and their roles in the process. This flowchart creates an understanding between the process owner and team members of how the process works. The use of the flowchart to gain this understanding is important because initial discussions usually reveal disagreements on how the process really works. Creating the flowchart clarifies – often after much discussion – how the process works.

Establish Process Measurements Measurements from a process are initially needed to describe how well the process is doing and to set the stage for process analysis and improvement. Later, measurements are employed to help control process performance and periodically determine process capability. In deciding which measurements to collect from a process, the emphasis should be on the process mission statement, goals, and customer needs discussed previously. Process measurements can include: 

Process effectiveness – provides required features; freedom from

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deficiencies 

Process efficiency – effective at least cost; competitive



Adaptability – effective and efficient in the face of change

Analyze Process Data Performance data are evaluated for both process effectiveness and process efficiency and problems are identified using Pareto analysis, flow diagrams and other means. The high-level and detailed flow diagrams are key tools at this point. A powerful and more complex technique is computer simulation using a computer model developed based on the logical sequence of process activities, along with data on the activities. An excellent source of ideas to design or redesign a process is other organizations with similar processes. The experience of other organizations can provide ideas that have been tested in practice.

Design (Redesign) the Process This final step may involve radical change, incremental change or both. We start with the flowchart analysis of the current (as is) process and then redesign the process to create a flowchart for the revised (should be) process. Design changes involve workflow, information and other technology, people, physical locations, and policies and regulations. Radical redesign of a process is associated with the term reengineering which is “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed”. Some key aspects of reengineering are: 

Apply state of the art information technology



Analyze process activities for improvement - eliminate non-valueadded work; simplify, combine, re-sequence activities, and minimize transform of material and information, especially across departments



Benchmark against other organizations



Empower employees to make decisions to minimize time required for approvals



Remove causes of errors in processes to reduce rework and minimize checking and controls



Consider transfer of some activities upstream to suppliers or downstream to customers



Establish a single point of contact for customers so that one employee handles an entire service, rather than transferring the customer to other employees



Use creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming

Before the new design is placed into operation, conduct a design review and trial implementation. Typically, the process owner assembles a group of experts (from outside the process) to evaluate the design alternatives and the chosen design. Finally, the selected design should be tested under operating conditions using trial runs with regular operating personnel to predict both process 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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effectiveness and process efficiency.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 7 – Organization for Quality

Teaching notes

Evolution of Organization for Quality During the 1980‟s and 1990‟s in the U.S., five major trends emerged in organizing for quality: 1)

Quality management tasks were assigned (or transferred) to functional line departments rather than to quality departments

2)

The scope of quality management was broadened from operations only (little Q) to all activities (big Q) and from external customers to external and internal customers. Most organizations now train personnel in the functional departments in the tools of quality management and make employees responsible for implementing modern concepts of quality.

3)

A major expansion occurred in the use of quality teams

4)

Authority to make decisions was delegated to lower levels

5)

Many companies are including key suppliers and customers in quality activities (partnering).

Coordination of Quality Activities The approach used to coordinate quality activities throughout an organization takes two major forms: 1)

Coordination for control is achieved by the regular line and staff departments, primarily through employment of formal procedures and use of feedback loops. Feedback loops take such forms as audit of execution versus plans, sampling to evaluate process and product quality, control charts and reports on quality.

2)

Coordination for creating change is achieved primarily through the use of quality project teams and other organizational forms for creating change.

Coordination for control is often the focus of a quality department; sometime such a focus is so preoccupying that the quality department is unable to make major strides in coordination for change. As a result, some “parallel organizations” for creating change have evolved.

Parallel Organizations for Creating Change Nonroutine, unusual programs of change usually require new organizational forms. These new forms are called “parallel organizations”. Parallel organizations may be permanent or ad hoc and may be mandatory or voluntary.

Role of Upper Management Active leadership by upper management is critical to achieving quality superiority. Upper management develops the strategies for quality and ensures their implementation through personal leadership. Upper managers need to spend at least 10% of their time on quality activities – with other managers, with front-line employees, with suppliers and with customers.

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Providing Resources for Quality Activities Upper management has the key role in providing resources for quality activities. Resources for project teams will be made available only if the pilot teams demonstrate benefits by achieving tangible results.

Quality Council A quality council (sometimes called a “leadership team”) is a group of upper managers who develop the quality strategy and guide and support the implementation. The chairperson is the manager who has overall responsibility and authority for that level. Isn‟t the quality council identical in membership to the upper management team? Usually yes. The seriousness and complexity of quality issues require a focus that is best achieved by meetings that address quality alone. Note that leadership is the first of the Baldrige criteria.

Role of the Quality Director The quality director of the future is likely to have two primary roles – administering the quality department and assisting upper management with strategic quality management. The Functions of the Quality Department of the Future: 

Companywide quality planning



Setting up quality measurement at all levels



Auditing outgoing quality



Auditing process quality



Coordinating and assisting with quality projects



Participating in supplier partnerships



Training for quality



Consulting for quality



Developing new quality methodologies



Transferring activities to line departments

The Role of Middle Management Middle managers, supervisors, professional specialists, and the workforce are the people who execute the quality strategy developed by upper management. The roles of middle managers, supervisors, and specialists include: 

Nominating quality problems for solutions



Serving as leaders of various types of quality teams



Serving as members of quality teams



Serving on task forces to assist the quality council in developing elements of the quality strategy



Leading the quality activities within their own area by demonstrating a personal commitment and encouraging their employees

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Identifying customers and suppliers and meeting with them to discover and address their needs

Role of the Workforce The roles of the workforce include: 

Nominating quality problems for solution



Serving as members of various types of quality teams



Identifying elements of their own jobs that do not meet the three criteria for self-control



Becoming knowledgeable as to the needs of their customers

Role of General Teams 

Quality project team – solve cross functional quality problems



Workforce team – solve problems within a department



Business process quality team – plan, control, and improve the quality of a key cross-functional process



Self-directed team – plan, execute, and control work to achieve a defined output

Quality Project Teams A quality project team (often called a cross-functional team) usually consists of about six to eight persons who are drawn from multiple departments to address a selected quality problem. The project team consists of a sponsor (champion), a leader, a recorder, team members and facilities (other resources from disciplines such as accounting and information technology are invited to meetings when needed). Organizations with numerous quality project teams often have several levels of facilitators. Thus, in the six sigma approach, three levels are employed: “master black belts”, “black belts”, and “green belts”. A blitz team is a project team that operates on an accelerated problem-solving schedule (several weeks for a solution rather than several months). The fast pace is accomplished by having the team meet frequently – several times a week, often for full days.

Workforce Teams Workforce teams were originally called quality circles. A workforce team is a group of people, usually from within one department, who volunteer to meet weekly (on company time) to address quality problems within their department. Team members select the problems and are given training in problem solving techniques. The most important benefit of workforce teams is the effect on people‟s attitudes and behavior: Effects on individual characteristics

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Teams enable the individual to improve personal capabilities



Teams increase the individual‟s self-respect



Teams help workers change certain personality characteristics

Effects on Individuals‟ Relations with Others 

Teams increase the respect of the supervisor for the workers



Teams increase workers‟ understanding of the difficulties faced by supervisors



Teams increase management‟s respect for workers

Effects on Workers and Their Attitudes Toward the Company 

Teams change some workers‟ negative attitudes



Teams reduce conflict stemming from the working environment



Teams help workers to understand why many problems cannot be solved quickly



Teams instill in the worker a better understanding of the importance of product quality

Recommendations for management to support and sustain these teams: 

Recognizing and rewarding (not necessarily monetarily) workers‟ efforts even if recommendations are not adopted. Giving workers increased discretion and self-control to act on their own recommendations is an excellent reward.



Offering monetary rewards through the suggestion program (which may have to be modified to accommodate joint submission)



Providing sufficient training to expand worker skills and take on more complex projects



Establishing a system for workforce teams to expand into crossfunctional teams when it appears to be a logical step. Teams may become “fatigued” when they feel they have accomplished about all they can by themselves and see the need to work with their internal suppliers and customers



Training middle managers in team tools and techniques so they can ask their subordinates the “right questions” and not be “outsiders”. These tools are also helpful for managers own processes



Addressing middle mangaerment resistant when diagnosed. Typically, management is concerned about a loss of authority and control.



Measuring effectiveness by focusing on the quality of the process rather than outcomes such as reduction of scrap and cotss.

Self Directed Teams A self-directed team is a group of people who work together continuously and who plan, execute, and control their work to achieve a defined output. The advantages of these teams include improvements in productivity, quality,

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customer satisfaction, and cost, as well as commitment of personnel.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 8 – Strategic Quality Management

Teaching notes

Elements of Strategic Quality Management Strategic quality management is the process of establishing long-range customer-focused goals and defining the approach to meeting those goals. This is developed, implemented, and led by upper management. The following elements provide the format: 

Define the mission and critical success factors



Study the internal and external environments, and identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the organization



Define a long-term, ultimate goal (“the vision”)



Develop key strategies to achieve the vision



Develop strategic goals (long term and short term)



Subdivide the goals and develop operational plans and projects (“deploy the goals”) to achieve the goals



Provide execute leadership to implement the strategies



Review progress with measurements, assessments and audits

Typically, strategy covers a five-year span in broad terms, with the first year in more detail, and with annual updating of the five-year strategy. Necessary ingredients for strategic quality management: 

A focus on customer needs



Continuous improvement to all processes in the organization (big Q)



Understanding the key customer, market, and operational conditions as input to setting strategic direction



Leadership by upper management – includes actions to carry out improvement, empower the workforce, train all levels, establish measures and review progress, provide recognition for superior performance.



Translation and deployment of strategies into the annual business plans.



Adequate resources where “people have the knowledge, skills, authority, and desire to decide, act and take responsibility for the results of their actions and for the contribution to the success of the company”

Mission, Environmental Analysis, Vision A mission is a statement of the organization‟s purpose and the scope of its operations, i.e., the business that we are in With respect to quality, the environmental analysis should focus on four elements: cost of poor quality, market standing on quality, the current quality

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culture, and the current quality system. A vision statement defines the desired future state of the organization. A vision can be viewed as the ultimate goal that may take five years or more to achieve. Vision statements recognize quality.

Developing Strategies A strategy is a guide on how to pursue the organization‟s mission and vision. Strategies set direction by identifying the key issues or activities that help develop specific goals and plans. With respect to quality, there are usually a small number of strategies, say three to five. Strategies can aim at both operational effectiveness and achieving a competitive advantage. Operational effectiveness means performing similar activities better than the competition does; achieving a competitive advantage means not performing the same activities as competitors perform or performing similar activities in different ways.

Development of Goals; Competitive Benchmarking A goal is a desired result to be achieved in a specified time. Seven areas in which goals are minimally required: 

Product performance



Competitive performance



Quality improvement



Cost of poor quality



Performance of business processes



Customer satisfaction



Customer loyalty and retention

Formulation of Quality Goals Quality goals can be identified from several inputs. The most important source is the collection of four studies: cost of poor quality, market standing on quality, quality culture and the quality system. Other inputs to help formulate goals: 

Pareto analysis of repetitive external alarm signals (failures, complaints, returns, …)



Pareto analysis of repetitive internal alarm signals (scrap, rework, sorting, …)



Proposals from key insiders



Proposals from suggestion schemes



Field study of users‟ needs, costs



Data on performance of products versus competitors‟



Comments of key people outside the company

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Findings and comments of government regulators, independent laboratories, reformers

Quality engineers and other staff specialists are assigned the job of analyzing the available inputs and of creating any essential missing inputs. These analyses point to potential projects that are then proposed.

Competitive Benchmarking Competitive benchmarking is “the continuous process of measuring products, services, and practices against the company‟s toughest competitors or those companies renowned as industry leaders”. A benchmark is simply a reference point that is used as a standard of comparison for actual performance. Benchmarks serve not only as a standard of comparison but also as a means of self-evaluation and subsequent improvement. The concept of searching for the best performer in any industry is a valuable contribution of the benchmarking approach. The benchmarking process applies to subjects such as products, customer services, and internal processes. The steps in the process are: 1.

Identify the benchmark subjects

2.

Identify benchmark partners (organizations that will serve as benchmarks)

3.

Determine the data collection method and collect the data

4.

Determine the competitive gap

5.

Project the future performance of the industry and our company

6.

Communicate the results

7.

Establish functional goals

8.

Develop action plans

9.

Implement plans and monitor results

10. Recalibrate the benchmarks (repeat every three to five years)

Deployment of Goals Broad goals must be deployed. Deployment means subdividing (aligning) the goals and allocating the goals to lower levels for conversion into operational plans and projects. Thus goals must be deployed from the organizational level to the process level and to individual jobs. Note that each goal is specific, observable, and measurable. Specific projects were then set up to achieve these goals. Key point: vision, strategies, and goals provide direction, but specific projects and other forms of action supply the methods to achieve the results.

Provide Executive Leadership to Implement the Strategies The most important factor in implementing quality strategies is the personal leadership of upper management. The organizational mechanism used is the quality council.

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The development of strategy and plans should involve both top-down and bottom-up viewpoints. The key elements are: 

Communication of what top management proposes as the key focus areas for strategic planning



Nominations by managers at lower levels of additional areas for attention



Decisions on strategies, goals and resources for deployment

Quality Policies A policy is a broad guide to action. It is a statement of principles or values. A policy differs from a procedure, which details how a given activity is to be accomplished. Thus a quality policy might state that quality costs will be measured. The corresponding procedure describes how the costs are to be measured. Policies for use within a quality department might include the following statements: 

“the amount of inspection of incoming parts and materials shall be based on criticality and a quantitative analysis of supplier history”



“the evaluation of new products for release to production shall include an analysis of data for compliance to performance requirements and shall also include an evaluation for overall fitness for use, including reliability, maintainability, and ease of user operation”



“the evaluation of new products for compliance with performance requirements shall be made to defined numerical limits of performance”



“Suppliers shall be supplied with a written statement of all quality requirements before a contract is signed”

Examples of policies state (1) a principle to be followed or (2) what is to be done but not how it is to be done. A sensitive policy issue may arise as the result of improvement projects that reduce rework or reprocessing to correct errors. The people who have been doing the rework wonder, “what will happen to me if this work is no longer necessary?” Several alternatives are possible: 

Guarantee that no employee will lose employment as a result of the quality effort. A few companies have issued such a policy statement.



Rely on resignations and retirements as a source of new jobs for those whose jobs have been eliminated. Retrain affected workers to quality them for the new jobs.



Reassign affected employees to other areas. This approach can include creating positions for additional quality improvement work.



Offer early retirement.



If all else fails, offer termination assistance to help workers locate jobs in other companies.

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sessment, and Audits; Balanced Scorecard Once goals have been set and deployed into subgoals, business plans, and projects, then key measurements must be established. At the strategic level, measurements should be developed for each strategic goal defined in the strategic plan. The measurements usually include areas such as product performance, competitive performance, quality improvement, cost of poor quality, performance of business processes, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty and retention. Some organizations combine their measurements from financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth areas into a “balanced scorecard”. The scorecard is used in conjunction with four management processes: translating the vision, communicating and linking strategy to departmental and individual objectives, integrating business and financial plans, and modifying strategies to reflect real-time learning.

The Learning Organization A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. The concept is based upon five “learning disciplines” that involve lifelong efforts of study and practice.

Obstacles to Achieving Quality Goals The reasons for failure are many, but seven stand out as important: 

Lack of leadership by upper management



Lack of an infrastructure for quality – clear goals, plans and organizational mechanisms for carrying out the plans, budgets, and provision for recognition and rewards.



Failure to understand the skepticism about the “new quality program”



An assumption by management that the exhortation approach will work



Failure to “start small” and learn from pilot activities



Reliance on specific techniques as the primary means of achieving quality goals



Underestimating the time and resources required. About 10% of the time of upper and middle management and professional specialists is required to achieve breakthroughs in quality.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 9 – Developing a Quality Culture

Teaching notes

Technology and Culture To become superior in quality, we must pursue two courses of action: 1.

Develop technologies that meet customer needs

2.

Stimulate a “culture” throughout the organization that continually views quality as a primary goal

Quality culture is the pattern of human habits, beliefs, value, and behavior concerning quality.

Corporate Culture Corporate culture consists of habits, beliefs, values, and behavior. Management needs to define and create the culture necessary for business success. Miller (1984) defines eight “primary values” that promote employee loyalty, productivity, and innovation. The eight values are: 1.

Purpose – purpose is the vision stated in terms of product or service and benefit to the customer

2.

Consensus – three decision making styles: command, consultative and consensus, which should be matched to particular situations

3.

Excellence – management creates an environment in which the pursuit of knowledge for improvement is pervasive

4.

Unity – the emphasis here is on employee participation and ownership of work

5.

Performance – individual and team rewards are the focus along with performance measurements to tell individuals how they are doing

6.

Empiricism – management by fact and the use of the scientific method form the basis of this value

7.

Intimacy – relates to sharing ideas, feelings, and needs in an open and trusting manner without fear of punishment

8.

Integrity – the norm here is for managers to act as role models for ethical practices

Overview Including Levels of Culture and Hofstede’s Dimensions

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Perspectives on Culture Change Interactionist PerspectiveBased on the social interaction of members

Standardized ‘Best Practice’ Processes

Sales

Manuf.

Escalation of Commitment (Drastic Measures)

Supply

Flattened Hierarchy

Accounting

Increased Information Availability

Marketing

Finance HR

Increased Centralization & Control

ERP System

Increased Inward (Rules) Focus

Interactionist Perspective ASA Objectivist Perspective Structure Technology Control Systems

Structuralist Perspective

Objectivist PerspectiveBased on attraction, selection and attrition Structuralist PerspectiveBased on the structure of the organization (including organizational relationships, technology and control systems)

Ashforth, 1985; Gordon, 1985; Schneider, 1983; Schneider & Reichers, 1983; Payne & Pugh, 1976; Kilman et al., 1985

Culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions and manifestations of those assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Levels of culture is the common term for „depth‟ or outward visibility of cultural elements in culture research (Schein, 1992) 

Artifacts: the visible and outward manifestations that an observer can actively sense as they observe the culture (Schein, 1992)



Norms: unwritten behaviors and attitudes that members of a group pressure one another to follow (Kilman et al., 1985)



Values: the reasons behind behaviors - expressed as broad tendency to prefer one state of affairs over another (Hofstede, 1984)



Assumptions: assumptions and fundamental beliefs that have become so taken for granted that members will find behavior based on any other premise inconceivable (Schein, 1992)

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Process-Results Employee-Job Parochial-Professional Open-Closed Loose-Tight Pragmatic-Normative Need for Security Work Centrality Need for Authority Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualist-Collectivist Masculine-Feminine Confucian Dynamism 

Process-Results: a concern for means (process-oriented) to a concern with goals (results-oriented)



Employee-Job: a concern for people (employee-oriented) to a concern for getting the job done (job-oriented)



Parochial-Professional: employees derive their identity largely from the organization (parochial) to people identify with their type of job (professional) (related to localism-cosmopolitanism (Merton, 1968)



Open-Closed: open or closed communication systems



Loose-Tight: amount of internal structure and control in the organization, tight versus loose



Pragmatic-Normative: market driven (pragmatic) or emphasis on implementation of inviolable rules (normative)

Quality Culture Quality culture is an integral part of corporate culture. Negative quality culture is a “hide the scrap” scenario. Positive quality culture is a “climb the ladders to delight the customer” scenario. Four different quality cultures: absence of quality emphasis, error detection, error prevention and creative quality. The more advanced levels of quality culture are associated with higher levels of organizational effectiveness. An important starting point is to determine the current quality culture. The paths for quality culture must be integrated with the methodologies and structure for quality. The three elements of self-control are really prerequisites 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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for achieving a quality culture. Thus we must provide people with the knowledge of what they are supposed to do, provide feedback on how they are doing, and provide a means of regulating a capable process. Actions to “motivate” people will not be successful unless these basics of self-control are in place.

Provide Quality Goals and Measurements at All Levels To ensure action on quality, a starting point is to provide quality goals and measurements at all levels. Human beings commit themselves in two different ways: external and internal. Under external commitment, management defines the goals for employees and also the tasks required to achieve those goals. Under internal commitment, management and employees jointly define goals, and the employees define the tasks to achieve the goals. Management must foster an environment of internal commitment. Segments of the organization use different languages in everyday operations, and creating awareness of the need for quality must reflect this fact. At the upper management level, creating an awareness of quality is best done in the language of money. Highlighting threats to sales income or opportunities for cost reduction are important. A study on marketplace standing will identify threats to sales income; a study on the cost of poor quality will highlight opportunities for cost reduction; a study on quality culture will help to identify some of the obstacles to inspiring action. At the middle management and lower levels, sometimes we can translate the impact of quality directly into the language of job security. When this step can be based on data, the result can be dramatic.

Quality Measurements as a Continuous Focus The message on quality must be sustained through continuous reinforcement. One form of reinforcement is quality measurement. Quality measurement is proposed for major functional activities. Units of measure must be carefully defined to inspire a positive priority for quality. Where the measurements show an unfavorable level of quality, the distinction between management-controllable and worker-controllable causes must be recognized. When the problem is mostly management controllable (the typical case), management must clearly be responsible for taking action. For problems that are mostly worker-controllable, the publishing or posting of the data must be accompanied by showing the workers exactly what steps they must take personally to improve their quality of output. An awareness of quality can include quality newsletters, quality items on meeting agendas, announcements on quality by key executives, conferences on quality, and “interest arousers” (e.g., letters from customers, …)

Provide Evidence of Management Leadership The most important element is management leadership in quality – with the evidence to prove it.

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Upper management quality-related activities will take about 10% of the managers‟ time. Some upper management groups have chosen to be highly visible in the quality process by leading quality training. A further form of evidence is upper management quality improvement teams. They address a problem that requires attention at its level. Middle management is encouraged and expected to create a work environment for improvement. Certain cultural norms appear to be instrumental in providing the needed support. Some of these include: 

A belief that the quality of a product or process is at least of equal importance and probably of greater importance than the mere quantity produced.



A fanatic commitment to meeting customer needs



A fanatic commitment to stretch goals and to continuous improvement



A belief that there should be no “sacred cows”



A customer-oriented code of conduct and code of ethics



A belief that continuous adaptive change is not only good, but necessary

Cultural patterns helpful in achieving performance breakthroughs are: 

A collaborative, as opposed to a competitive mode of performing work



A generally participative, as opposed to a generally authoritarian management style



A high level of trust (feeling safe), as opposed to a high level of fear (feeling unsafe, unwilling to offer true opinions, or take stands or risks).

Provide for Self-Development and Empowerment For people to be in a state of self-control, they must have a knowledge of what they are supposed to do, feedback on their performance, and the means of regulating their work if they are failing to meet the goals. The lack of one or more of these elements means that quality problems are management controllable. (Generally, about 80% of quality problems are management controllable). Placing workers in a state of self-control is a prerequisite to using behavioral approaches to motivate employees.

Job Characteristics Five characteristics of jobs that provide meaningful and satisfying (“enriched”) jobs for employees: 

Skill variety – degree to which the job has a sufficient variety of activities to require a diversity of employee skills and talents



Task identity – extent to which work requires doing a job from beginning to end and results in a completed visible unit of output



Task significance – extent to which the job affects internal and

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external customers 

Autonomy – amount of employee self-control in planning and doing the work



Feedback – degree to which direct knowledge of results is provided to employees

In horizontal job enlargement, the scope of a job is increased by having workers perform a larger variety of tasks. The extreme case of horizontal job enlargement is for each worker to produce a complete product unit. In vertical job enlargement, the job is enlarged by making workers responsible for tasks previously performed by others vertically higher in the organization (e.g. a supervisor). Self-Directed Teams Empowerment is the process of delegating decision-making authority to lower levels within the organization. Empowerment of the workforce is particularly dramatic. It means encouraging people to take the initiative and broaden their scope; it also means being supportive if mistakes are made. Performance appraisals coaches employees to a higher level of performance. It must deemphasize prior performance and focus on assisting employees in future job-related quality efforts. Participation at all levels is decisive to inspiring action on quality. See forms of participation (quality council, teams, task forces, process owners, designs, …. P 283).

Provide Recognition and Rewards Recognition is public acknowledgement of superior performance of specific activities. Rewards are benefits (such as salary increases, bonuses, and promotions) that are conferred for generally superior performance against goals. Forms of recognition range form a simple verbal message for a job well done (often overlooked) to modest awards. Recognition must be genuine and must fit the local culture.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 10 – Understanding Customer Needs

Teaching notes

Identify the Customers We define a customer as anyone who is affected by the product or process. Three categories of customers then emerge: 

External customers, both current and potential



Internal customers – include all functions affected by the product at both the managerial and workforce levels



Suppliers as customers

Some customers are more important than others. It is typical that about 80% of the total sales volume comes from about 20% of the customers. It is often useful to identify segments of customers. Restricting customer segments enables an organization to concentrate resources on the vital few customer and perform those activities that will lead to customer loyalty.

Customer Behavior Customer needs are the basic physiological and psychological requirements and desires for survival and well-being. Customer expectations are the anticipated characteristics and performance of the goods or service. The “expected” level of quality represents the minimum or “must be” attributes. At the “unitary” (or desired) level, better performance leads to greater satisfaction but (in a limited time period) usually in small increments. For the “attractive” (or surprising) level, better performance results in delighted customers because attributes or the level of performance are a pleasant surprise to the customers. Customer satisfaction is the degree to which the customer believes that the expectations are met or exceeded by the benefits received. Customer expectation has a strong influence on satisfaction. Customer perception is the impression made by the product. Customer perceptions are heavily based on previous experience.

Scope of Human Needs and Expectations There is a distinction between stated needs and real needs. When a customer states that “I need an X” perhaps we should ask “what would you use the X for?”.

Sources of Market Quality Information Market quality information includes quality alarm signals arising from a decline in sales and also from field failure reports, customer complaints, claims, lawsuits, etc. Most alarm signals are poor measures of quality – rather, they are measures of expressed product dissatisfaction. A low level of alarm signals does not necessarily mean a high level of quality. Particularly for inexpective products, complaint rates are a poor indicator of customer satisfaction. If customers are 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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not satisfied they simply switch brands – without submitting a complaint. A product may be failure free and yet not be salable because a competitor‟s design is superior or has a lower price. A second source of market quality information is the vast array of published data available relative to quality. Such “field intelligence” includes databases on sales volume, price changes, success rates on bids, complaints, spare parts usage, salespersons‟ reports, ratings from customers and consumer journals, government reports, etc.

Market Research In Quality (“Voice of the Customer”) “Marketing research” is “the function which links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer, through information – information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process”. The voice of the customer (VOC) is a continuous process of collecting customer views on quality and can include customer needs, expectations, satisfaction, and perception. The emphasis is on in-depth observing, listening and learning. This process addresses the three main purposes of market research for quality.

Purposes of Market Research in Quality 

Determine customer needs



Develop new features



Measure current customer satisfaction



Analyze customer retention and loyalty issues

We ask customers directly what their needs are and also methodically study how customers currently use the product; then we analyze their total system of use to identify hidden needs. Measurement of current customer satisfaction involves several elements. First, the term quality must be translated into specific attributes that customers say are important. Using market research for customer retention and loyalty starts with the distinction between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The research must include finding the reasons for losing customers. Thus, market research seeks to answer some cardinal questions: 

What is the relative importance of various product qualities, as seen by the user? The answers provided are usually different from what is expected.



For the more important qualities, how does our product compare with competitors‟ products, as seen by the users?



What is the effect of these competing qualities (including our own) on users‟ costs, well-being and other aspects of fitness for use?



What are users‟ problems about which they do not complain but which we might nevertheless be able to remedy?

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Do users have ideas that we might be able to use for their benefit?

Critical Incident Technique An “incident” is best thought as “any observable human activity that is sufficiently complete in itself to permit inferences and predictions to be made about the person performing the act. For the incident to be considered critical it must occur in a situation where the purpose or intent of the act seems fairly clear to the observer and where its consequences are sufficiently definitive to leave little doubt concerning its effects. End users (customer or potential customers) are asked to identify specific incidents which they experienced personally and which had an important effect on the final outcome. The emphasis is on incidents rather than on vague opinions.

Needs Related to Product Features To start, we need to identify the attributes that customers say are important in their purchasing decision. An important next step is to learn how our product compares with the competition‟s. This task can be accomplished by using a multi-attribute study. Sometimes the list of attributes is lengthy, and the identification of the vital few can be extremely helpful. The simplest method is to present a list to customers and ask them to select the most important. In another approach, customers are asked to allocate 100 points over various attributes.

Discovering Customer Needs and Marketing Opportunities Field studies can provide access to the realities of the conditions of use and also to the customers themselves. This approach gathers information by observation of customers rather than inquiry of customers. Some researchers call this approach “stapling ourselves to the product”. Other methods include focus groups, observations at customer sites, executive interactions with customers, special customer surveys, analysis of complaints, participation at trade shows, and comparing products with those of competitors.

Focus Groups A focus group consists of 8 to 14 current or potential customers who meet for about two hours to discuss a product.

Mass Customization Mass customization is “the same large number of customers can be reached as in mass markets of the industrial economy, and simultaneously they can be treated individually as in the customized markets of pre-industrial economies”. The goal is to detect customers needs first and then to fulfill these needs with an efficiency that almost equals that of mass production. This is applicable obly to those products for which the value of customization, to the extent that customers are willing to pay for it, exceeds the cost of customizing.

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Needs Related to Product Deficiencies The emphasis during planning must be on prevention of deficiencies (defects, failures, errors, etc).

Measuring Customer Satisfaction In measuring customer satisfaction we must identify the attributes of the product that collectively define satisfaction. The list of attributes should span the entire cycle of customer contact from initial contact with a salesperson through use and servicing of the product and handling of complaints. It is possible to use a generic template of attributes. Customer satisfaction measurement should also include asking customers about the relative importance of the various attributes. Another essential question to ask customers is, would you purchase from us again, or would you recommend us to friends? Benchmarking suggests that world-class companies earn “definitely would recommend” scores 60 to 65% of the time. Collecting information on customers and their needs provides the input for the quality function deployment matrix on customers and customer needs. The data then help us to translate customer needs into product features.

Market Research for Internal Customers Market research concepts apply to both internal and external customers.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 11 – Designing for Quality

Teaching notes

Opportunities for Improvement in Product Design This step on the quality spiral translates the needs of the user into a set of product design requirements for manufacturing (or the operations function in a services organization). This process is called product development, research and development, engineering and product design. Poor designs are not the fault of individual designers – the cause is the process of design and development.

Design and Development as a Process A process is a collection of activities that produce an output or result. When design and development is viewed as a process, several key issues emerge: 1.

Design and development has “customers” (i.e., anyone affected by the design).

2.

For external customers, the needs must be studied in detail and translated in a structured way into product features and design parameters – the goal being to knock a competitor off its pedestal. These needs are defined by customers.

3.

For internal customers, the development process must recognize that the design becomes a major determinant of costs in the areas such as manufacturing, purchasing, and servicing. A helpful concept in this regard is quality function deployment.

4.

Designers must recognize that product development is a crossfunctional process (with sub processes) involving the design department and other internal departments. Designers become knowledgeable about the impact of the design on these other activities and that designers actively view these activities as part of the development process.

5.

Suppliers must become part of the development team.

6.

The product development process must address the issue of minimizing variation of product around the nominal values of design parameters.

7.

The product development process (for physical as well as service products) can benefit from the application of quality management concepts.

This integrated view of the product development process is sometimes called “integrated product and process development” (IPPD).

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Phases of Product Development and the Early Warning Concept Forms of Early Warning of New-Product Problems Phases of new product progression

Forms of early warning of newproduct troubles

Concept and feasibility study

Concept review

Prototype design

Design review, reliability and maintainability prediction, failure mode, effect and criticality analysis, safety analyses, value engineering

Prototype construction

Prototype test, environmental test, overstressing

Preproduction

Pilot production lots, evaluation of specifications

Early full-scale production

In-house testing (e.g., kitchen, road), consumer use panels, limited marketing area

Full-scale production, marketing and use

Employees as test panels, special provisions for prompt feedback

All phases

Failure analysis, data collection and analysis

The cost of changes in a design can be huge.

Designing for Basic Functional Requirements; Quality Function Deployment Product development translates customer expectations for functional requirements into specific engineering and quality characteristics.

Quality Function Deployment QFD is “a structured and disciplined process that provides a means to identify and carry the Voice of the Customer through each stage of product or service development and implementation. This process can be deployed horizontally through marketing, product planning, engineering, manufacturing, service and all other departments in an organization involved in product or service development”. QFD uses a series of interlocking matrices that translates customer needs into product and process characteristics. It is often referred to as “the house of quality”. If the number of customer requirements and design requirements become large, factor analysis can be used. Factor analysis is a statistical technique that simplifies a large number of relationships among variables to a smaller number of parameters with a minimum loss of information. QFD helps achieve significantly better product designs than traditional practices and QFD creates an information-intensive atmosphere where communication increases and ideas are exchanged freely. Lesser benefits appear with respect 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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to lowering product costs and reducing time to market. Phase I Customer-Focused Design Using QFD Project: OTU Camera Date: 12/14/2001 Input areas are in yellow

PHASE I QFD EM Correlation Matrix Picture grain size Contrast Distortion Corner illumination # of steps to take picture Force to advance film Force to depress shutter button Thickness Height Width (or Length) Parallax error at 6 feet Minimum focus range Red-eye probability index Light capture index Flash output Aesthetic measure Weight

X X

X

X X X

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1 3

B C

3 9 9

9

CA A A

9

# steps

sib

Nom

sib

3

B C

8

A

Kodak OTU

5

5

B

Fuji

Konica

8

1.4 4.0% 80%

4

1.5

2

0.9

2.2

4.3

4

24

60%

-2

14k

4

4

C

Konica

1

Rank 4

12

13

13

3

1

17 1.5

2 1

2

2

2.3

4.3

13 4

13 24

6 40%

6 0

6 18k

Benchmarking

27

6 5

A

7%

7%

27 7%

27 7%

27 7%

9 2%

9 2%

30 7%

30 7%

30 7%

3 1%

9

2

2%

6

1.2 2.0% 95%

2%

Relative Weight

3%

Raw score

Nom Nom

27

3

18k

LCI

15k

0

%

-1

50%

Nom Nom Nom Nom Nom

inches

35%

24

inches

36

4

inches

8

4.4

inches

4.8

2.3

inches

2.3

1

sib

lbf

1.2

1

lbf

1

1.5

9

2

4

12

sib

5

1.1 1.0% 85%

30

LIB

1.2 2.0% 75%

6

7%

sib

8

Fuji

27

sib

Kodak OTU Technical Benchmarking

81

ounces

% light @ corners

Nom

3

CAB AC AB BC B C B

1-5 scale

% deflection

sib

3

Lumen-seconds

Contrast index

Units

RMS granularity

3

Excellent

Acceptable

Poor 1

Weight

Aesthetic measure

Flash output

Light capture index

Red-eye probability index

Minimum focus range

Parallax error at 6 feet

Width (or Length)

Height

Thickness

Force to depress shutter button

Force to advance film

# of steps to take picture

Corner illumination

Distortion 3

3

EM Direction

Technical Targets

3

Customer Perception

5

9

Contrast

Picture grain size

9 3 3 3 3 3 9

7%

Customer Needs Good pictures Easy to use Pic looks the way I see in viewfinder Reduced red-eye Works in low light conditions Aesthetically pleasing Easy to carry

20%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Customer Weights

Engineering Metrics

4

X X

3

X

2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

6 5

 2001 design4X, Inc.

Parameter Design and Robust Design The most basic product feature is performance. For each input, the engineering identifies parameters and specifies numerical values to achieve the required output of the final product. For each parameter, the specifications state a target (or nominal) value and a tolerance range around the target. The process is called “parameter and tolerance design”. Robust designs provide optimum performance simultaneously with variation in manufacturing and field conditions. With many factors affecting performance, it becomes difficult to know (1) what factors do affect performance and (2) what nominal values to set for each factor.

Application of Design of Experiments (DOE) to Product and Process Design The design of experiments is employed to investigate control factors in the presence of noise factors.

Designing for Time-Oriented Performance (Reliability) Reliability engineering. Reliability is quality over time. Reliability is the ability of a product to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. Four implications become apparent: 1.

The quantification of reliability in terms of a probability

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2.

A statement defining successful product performance

3.

A statement defining the environment in which the equipment must operate

4.

A statement of the required operating time between failures

To achieve high reliability, it is necessary to define the specific tasks required. This task definition is called the reliability program. Reliability programs can span the full product life cycle (i.e., cradle to grave). A reliability program typically includes the following activities: setting overall reliability goals, apportionment of the reliability goals, stress analysis, identification of critical parts, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability prediction, design review, selection of suppliers, control of reliability during manufacturing, reliability testing, and failure reporting and corrective action system. The act of qualification makes reliability a design parameter just like weight and tensile strength. Thus reliability can be submitted to specification and verification.

Setting Overall Reliability Goals A commonly used reliability index is mean time between failures (MTBF), but no single index applies to most products. Setting overall reliability goals requires a meeting of the minds on (1) reliability as a number, (2) the environmental conditions to which the numbers apply, and (3) a definition of successful product performance. Reliability Figures of Merit include: 

Mean time between failures (MTBF) – Mean time between successive failures of a repairable product



Failure rate – number of failures per unit time



Mean time to failure (MTTF) – mean time to failure of a nonrepairable product or mean time to first failure of a repairable product



Mean life – mean value of life (“life” may be related to major overhead, wear-out time, etc.)



Mean time to first failure (MTFF) – mean time to first failure of a repairable product



Mean time between maintenance (MTBM) – mean time between a specified type of maintenance action



Longevity – Wear-out time for a product



Availability – Operating time expressed as a percentage of operating and repair time



System effectiveness – extent to which a product achieves the requirements of the user



Probability of success – same as reliability (but often used for “one shot” or non-time-oriented products)



b10 life – life during which 10% of the population would have failed



b50 life – median life, or life during which 50% of the population would

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have failed 

Repairs/100 – number of repairs per 100 operating hours

Reliability Apportionment, Prediction, and Analysis The process of reliability quantification involves three phases: 1.

Apportionment (or budgeting)

2.

Prediction

3.

Analysis

The approach of adding failure rates to predict system reliability is analogous to the control of weight in aircraft structures, where a running record is kept of weight as various parts are added to the design.

Parts Selection and Control Critical Components List A component part is considered “critical” if any of the following conditions apply: 

It has a high population in the equipment



It has a single source of supply



It must function to special, tight limits



It has not been proved to the reliability standard, i.e., no test data are available, or use data are insufficient

Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis In the failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis (FMECA), a product is examined at the system and/or lower levels for all the ways in which a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made for its effect on the total system and of its seriousness. In addition, a review is made of the action being taken (or planned) to minimize the probability of failure or to minimize the effect of failure. The analysis can be elaborated to include matters such as: 

Safety – injury is the most serious of all failure effects



Effect on downtime – must the system stop until repairs are made?



Access – what hardware items must be removed to get at the failed component?



Repair planning – what is the anticipated repair time? What special repair tools are needed?



Recommendations – what changes in designs or specifications should be made? What tests should be added? What instructions should be included in manuals or inspection, operation or maintenance?

A ranking procedure has been applied to assign priorities to the failure modes for further study. The ranking is twofold: (1) the probability of occurrence of the failure mode and (2) the severity of the effect. For most products engineering judgement is used to single out items that are

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critical to the operation of the product. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is another method of studying potential failures in a product. FTA studies are usually applied only to failures that are considered serious enough to warrant detailed analysis. Evaluating Designs by Testing The principal sources of risk follow: 

Intended use versus actual use



Model construction versus subsequent production



Variability due to small numbers

Summary of Tests Used to Evaluate a Design 

Performance – ability of product to meet basic performance requirements



Environmental – ability of product to withstand defined environmental levels



Stress – determine levels of stress that a product can withstand to determine the safety margin inherent in the design; determine modes of failure that are not associated with time



Reliability – compare to requirements and monitor for trends



Maintainability – time required to make repairs and compare to requirements



Life – wear-out time for a product and failure modes associated with time



Pilot run – whether fabrication and assembly processes are capable of meeting design requirements; whether reliability will be degraded



Customer (“beta”) – product functions properly under customer use conditions

Methods for Improving Reliability during Design The following are approaches to improving a design” 1.

Review the users‟ needs to see whether the function of the unreliability parts is really necessary to the user

2.

Consider trade-offs of reliability for other parameters

3.

Use redundancy to provide more than one means of accomplishing a given task so that all the means must fail before the system fails

4.

Review the selection of any parts that are relatively new and unproven

5.

Use derating to ensure that the stresses applied to the parts are lower than the stresses the parts can normally withstand

6.

Use “robust” design methods that enable a product to handle unexpected environments

7.

Control the operating environment to provide conditions that yield

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lower failure rates 8.

Specify replacement schedules to remove and replace low-reliability parts before they reach the wear-out stage

9.

Prescribe screening tests to detect “infant mortality” failures and to eliminate sub-standard components

10. Conduct research and development to improve the basic reliability of components that contribute most of the unreliability

Availability Availability is the ability of a product, when used under given conditions, to perform satisfactorily when called upon. The total time in the operative state (also called uptime) is the sum of the time spent in active use and in the standby state. The total time in the non-operative state (also called downtime) is the sum of the time spent under active repair and waiting for spare parts, paperwork, etc. The proportion of time that a product is available for use depends on (1) freedom from failures, i.e., reliability and (2) the ease with which service can be restored after a failure.

Designing for Maintainability Maintainability is often specified quantitatively, such as the mean time to repair (MTTR). MTTR is the mean time needed to perform repair work assuming that a spare part and technician are availability. Non one maintainability index applies to most products. Other examples of indices are percentage of downtime due to hardware failures, percentage of downtime due to software errors, and mean time between preventative maintenance. Approaches to improving maintainability include: 

Reliability versus maintainability



Modular versus non-modular construction



Repairs versus throwaway



Built-in versus external test equipment



Person versus machine

Designing for Safety Safety analysis tools include hazard quantification, designation of safetyoriented characteristics and components, fault tree analysis, fail-safe concepts, in-house and field testing, and publication of product ratings.

Quantification of Safety Generally, quantification of safety has been time related. Industrial injury rates are quantified on the basis of lost-time accidents per million labor hours of exposure. Product designers have tended to quantify safety in two ways: 1.

Hazard frequency – frequency of occurrence of an unsafe event and/or injuries per unit of time

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2.

Hazard severity – MIL-STD-882D has four levels of severity: a.

Category I – catastrophic – may cause death or system loss

b.

Category II – critical – may cause severe injury, severe occupational illness, or major system damage

c.

Category III – marginal – may cause minor injury, minor occupational illness, or minor system damage

d.

Category IV – negligible – will not result in injury, occupational illness, or system change

Hazard analysis is similar to FMECA – but the failure event is one that causes an injury. Three forms of hazard analysis can be prepared: design concept, operating procedures, and hardware failures. Fault-tree analysis is a top-down approach which starts by supposing that an accident takes place. It then considers the possible direct causes which could lead to this accident. Next it looks for the origins of these causes. Finally, it looks for ways to avoid these origins and causes.

Designing for Manufacturability Specification limits specify the allowable limits of variability above and below the nominal value set by the designer. The limits affect: 

Fitness for use and hence the salability of the product



Costs of manufacture (facilities, tooling, productivity) and quality (equipment, inspection, scrap, rework, material review, etc.)

A technique called design for manufacturability focuses on simplifying a design to make it more producible. The emphasis is on reducing the total number of parts, the number of different parts, and the total number of manufacturing operations. What is new is the computer software available for analyzing a design and identifying opportunities for simplifying assembly products. Design simplification reduces assembly errors and other sources of quality problems during manufacture. Product designers must understand and study manufacturing process capability before the design is released.

Cost and Product Performance Designing for reliability, maintainability, safety, and other parameters must be done with the simultaneous objective of minimizing cost. The quantitative approach uses a ratio relating performance and cost. “what we get for each dollar we spend” Value engineering is a technique for evaluating the design of a product to ensure that the essential functions are provided at minimal overall cost to the manufacturer or user. A complementary technique is the “design to cost” approach. It starts with a definition of (1) a cost target for the product and (2) the function desired. Alternative design concepts are then developed and evaluated. Business review where the current results of the development effort are summarized and a decision is made whether to proceed. Another type of review is technical and is usually called “design review”.

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Design Review Design review is a formal, documented, comprehensive, and systematic examination of a design to evaluate the design requirements and the capability of the design to meet these requirements and to identify problems and propose solutions. Design reviews are based on the following concepts: 

Become mandatory based on customer demand or upper management policy



Conducted by a team consisting mainly of specialists who are not directly associated with the development of the design



Design reviews are formal



Cover all quality-related parameters and others as well. The parameters can include reliability, maintainability, safety, producibility, weight, packaging, appearance, cost, etc.



As much as possible, design reviews are based on defined criteria. Such criteria may include customer requirements, internal goals, and experience with previous products.



Conducted at several phases in the progression of the design, such as design concept, prototype design and test, and final design.



The ultimate decision on inputs from the design review rests with the designer.

Designers have resisted the use of design reviews that challenge their designs.

Concurrent Engineering Concurrent engineering, also called simultaneous engineering, is the process of designing a product using all inputs and evaluations simultaneously and early during design to ensure that internal and external customers‟ needs are met. The aim is to reduce the time from product concept to market, prevent quality and reliability problems and reduce costs. It is a concept that enables all who are impacted by a design to (1) have early access to design infomraiton and (2) have the ability to influence the final design to identify and prevent future problems. Dramatic benefits are reported from concurrent engineering, e.g. 75% fewer engineering changes, 55% less time from product concept to market.

Quality Measurement in Design All quality-related design activities must provide for measurement. Overall Design Process



Cost of poor quality



Number of months from first pilot unit to stead state products

Design changes



Number of design changes (1) at design review, (2) at development testing, (3) after design release for steady state production

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Reliability, maintainability

Software

Ease of Manufacture

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Number of design changes (1) to meet requirements, (2) to improve performance, (3) to facilitate manufacture



Number of design changes requested by the customer



Number of waivers to specifications



Number of drawing errors found by checkers on first check



Ratio of predicted reliability to actual reliability



Ratio of actual reliability to reliability requirement



Maintainability index compared to prior design



Number of software errors per KLOC



Average score given by customers on overall quality of software



Ratio of number of parts to theoretical minimum number



Total assembly time



Total number of operations

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 12 – Supply Chain Management

Teaching notes

Supplier Relations – A Revolution Under the just-in-time inventory concept, goods are received from suppliers only in the quantity and at the time that they are needed for production. The buyer stocks no inventories. With conventional purchasing, supplier quality problems can be hidden by excess inventory; with the just-in-time concept, purchased product must meet quality requirements. The interdependence of buyers and suppliers has increased dramatically. This has lead to a revolution in the relationship between buyers and suppliers. The key phrase is partnership alliance, working closely together for the mutual benefit of both parties. The supply chain is all of the tasks, activities, events, processes and interactions undertaken by all suppliers and all end users in the development, procurement, production, delivery, and consumption of a specific good or service. The purchasing function has the primary role of managing the supply chain to achieve high quality and value throughout the supply chain. The new focus is from managing purchasing transactions and troubleshooting to managing processes and supplier relationships. Under supply chain management, mechanisms must be put in place to ensure adequate linkages among parties in the supply chain.

Scope of Activities for Supplier Quality A purchasing system includes three key activities: specification of requirements, selection of a supplier, and supply chain management. The quality department has the principal responsibility for many supplier quality activities. Some organizations are shifting form a function-based organization for purchasing transactions to a process-based organization for managing the supply chain.

Specification of Quality Requirements for Suppliers Circumstances may require two kinds of specifications: 

Specifications defining the product requirements



Specifications defining the quality-related activities expected of the supplier, i.e., the supplier‟s quality system

Definition of Numerical Quality and Reliability Requirements for Lots These criteria are typically needed in acceptance sampling procedures, which makes it possible to accept or reject an entire lot of product based on the inspection and test result of a random sample from the lot. Numerical reliability requirements can help to clarify what a customer means by “high reliability”.

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Definition of the Supplier Quality System Defining required activities within a supplier‟s plant is sometimes necessary to ensure that a supplier has the expertise to conduct the full program needed for a satisfactory product. Documents such as the ISO 9000 series and TS-16949 (formerly QS 9000), which define the elements of quality programs, can be cited as requirements in a contact with a supplier.

Supplier Selection; Outsourcing Should we make or buy? This decision requires an analysis of factors such as the skills and facilities needed, available internal capacity, ability to meet delivery schedules, expected costs of making or buying, and other matters. This question brings us to the issue of outsourcing.

Outsourcing Outsourcing is the process of subcontracting to a supplier external to the organization as activity that is currently conducted in house. Outsourcing is undertaken to reduce costs (the primary impetus), reduce cycle time, or improve quality. The more that outsourcing results in a supplier obtaining technical knowledge and market knowledge, the higher the risks to the company doing the outsourcing. Outsourcing reduces internal costs by reducing personnel because the outsourcer (supplier) companies have the technology and knowledge to perform certain tasks more efficiently than some companies can internally. But there can be a serious impact on product quality if the supplier does not assign a high priority to quality. Outsourcing can also undermine employee morale and loyalty by creating fear that other activities will also be outsourced, resulting in further loss of jobs. Outsourcing also assumes that a capable supplier can be found and that adequate monitoring of the contact will ensure high quality. Sometimes these issues are glossed over in the zeal to reduce costs. Once skills are lost through outsourcing, it is difficult to reverse the process. Outsourcing can provide superior quality and lower costs for an activity that a company cannot easily develop and maintain on its own. Outsourcing also enables a company to focus resources on the core competencies that are important for competitive advantage. Core competencies must be carefully identified within each organization, and once identified they should be performed internally and not be outsourced.

Multiple Suppliers versus Single Source Multiple sources of supply have advantages. Competition can result in better quality, lower costs, better service, and minimum disruption of supply from strikes and other catastrophies. A single source of supply also has advantages. The size of the contract given to a single source will be larger than that with multiple sources, and the supplier will attach more significance to the contact. With a single source, communications are simplified and more time is available for working closely with the supplier. Organizations are significantly reducing the number of multiple suppliers. They are using a single source for some purchases and fewer multiple sources for

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others to achieve useful partnerships.

Assessment of Supplier Capability Evaluating supplier quality capability involves one or both of the following actions: 1.

Quantifying the supplier‟s design through the evaluation of product samples

2.

Qualifying the supplier‟s capability to meet quality requirements on production lots, i.e., the supplier‟s quality system.

Qualifying the Supplier’s Design Samples are tested (the “qualification test”) either by the purchaser or by the supplier. Qualification test results do show whether the supplier has created a design that meets the performance requirements; such test results do not show whether the supplier is capable of manufacturing the item under production conditions. A supplier may be required to submit a failure model, effects and criticality analysis as evidence of analyses to prevent product or process failures.

Qualifying the Supplier’s Manufacturing Process Evaluation of the supplier‟s manufacturing capability can be done by reviewing past data on similar products, performing process capability analysis, or evaluating the supplier‟s quality system through a quality survey. With the process capability analysis approach, data on key product characteristics are collected form the process and evaluated by using statistical indexes for process capability.

Supplier Quality Survey (Supplier Quality Evaluation) A supplier quality survey is an evaluation of the ability of a supplier‟s quality system to meet quality requirements on production lots, i.e., to prevent, identify, and remove any product that does not meet requirements. The survey can vary from a simple questionnaire mailed to the supplier to a visit to the supplier‟s facility. The questionnaire poses explicit questions such as: 

Has your company received the quality requirements on the product and agreed that they can be fully met?



Are your final inspection results documented?



Do you agree to provide the purchaser with advance notice of any changes in your product design?



What protective garments do your employees wear to reduce product contamination?



Describes the air-filtration system in your manufacturing areas

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The more formal quality survey consists of a visit to the supplier‟s facility by a team of observers from departments such as quality, engineering, manufacturing, and purchasing. Such a visit may be part of a broader survey of the supplier covering financial, managerial, and technological competence. 

Management: philosophy, quality policies, organization structure, indoctrination, commitment to quality



Design: organization, systems in use, caliber of specifications, orientation to modern techniques, attention to reliability, engineering change control, development laboratories



Manufacture: physical facilities, maintenance, special processes, process capability



Purchasing: specifications, supplier relations, procedures



Quality: organizational structure, availability of quality and reliability engineers, quality planning (materials, in-process, finished goods, packing, storage, shipping, usage, field service), audit of adherence to plan



Inspection and test: laboratories, special tests, instruments, measurement control



Quality coordination: organization for coordination, order analysis, control over subcontractors, quality cost analysis, corrective action loop, disposition of nonconforming product.



Data systems: facilities, procedures, effective use of reports



Personnel: indoctrination, training motivation



Quality results: performance attained, self-use of product, prestigious customers, prestigious subcontractors

The purchaser can use a weighted decision matrix to evaluate multiple suppliers on the supplier quality survey. Suppliers in some industries have been burdened with quality surveys from many purchasers. In another approach, a standard specification of the elements of a quality system (e.g., the ISO 9000 series) is created and assessors are trained to use the specification to evaluate supplier capability. A list of suppliers that have passed the assessment is published, and other purchasers are encouraged to use these results instead of making their own assessment of a supplier. The assessors are independent of the supplier or purchasing organization – thus the term third-party assessment. In some countries, a national standards organization acts in this role.

Supply Chain Quality Planning The sourcing process, follows a series of steps for the purchasing process that involves the purchasing organization, suppliers, and end users 1.

Document the organization‟s historic, current, and future procurement activity.

2.

Identify a commodity from the procurement activity that represents both high expenditure and high criticality to the business.

3.

For this commodity, assemble a cross-functional team

4.

Determine the sourcing needs of the customer through data

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collection, survey and other activities 5.

Analyze the supply industry‟s structure, capabilities and trends

6.

Analyze the cost components of the commodity‟s total cost of ownership

7.

Translate the customer needs into a sourcing process that will satisfy the customer and provide the opportunity to manage and optimize the total cost of ownership

8.

Obtain management endorsement to transfer the sourcing strategy into operation. Implement it.

In doing detailed quality planning with suppliers, three approaches emerge: 

Inspection – the focus is on various forms of product inspection



Prevention – the premis is that quality must be built in by the supplier with the purchaser‟s help. But there is still an arm‟s length relationship between purchaser and supplier.



Partnership – suppliers are offered the financial security of a longterm relationship in exchange for a supplier‟s commitment to quality that includes a strong teamwork relationship with the buyer.

Partnership is clearly the wave of the future.

Joint Economic Planning The economic aspects of joint quality planning concentrate on two major approaches: 

Value rather than conformance to specification – the technique used is to analyze the value of what is being bought and try to effect an improvement. Value engineering looks for excessive costs due to (1) over-specification for the use to which the product will be put, e.g., a special product ordered when a standard product would do; (2) emphasis on original price rather than on cost of use over the life of the product; and (3) emphasis on conformance to specification, not fitness for use.



Total cost of ownership – quality-related costs to the purchase price: incoming inspection, materials review, production delays, downtime, extra inventories, etc. However, the supplier also has a set of costs it is trying to optimize. The buyer should put together the data needed to understand the life-cycle costs or the cost of use and then press for a result that will optimize them.

Joint Technological Planning The standard elements of such planning include: 1.

Agreement on the meaning of performance requirements in the specifications

2.

Quantification of quality, reliability, and maintainability requirements

3.

Definition of reliability and maintainability tasks to be conducted by the supplier.

4.

Preparation of a process control plan for the manufacturing process.

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5.

Definiition of special tasks required of the supplier.

6.

Seriousness classification of defects to help the supplier understand where to concentrate efforts

7.

Establishment of sensory standards for qualities that require use of the human being as an instrument.

8.

Standardization of test methods and test conditions between supplier and buyer to ensure their compatibility.

9.

Establishment of sampling plans and other criteria relative to inspection and test activity.

10. Establishment of quality levels. It is best to make clear to the supplier through the contract that all product submitted is expected to meet specifications and that any nonconforming product may be returned for replacement. In many industries, the unit of measurement is defects per million (DPM). 11. Establishment of a system of lot identification and traceability. 12. Establishment of a system of timely response to alarm signals resulting from defects

Supply Chain Quality Control Steps for successful supplier control: 

Create a cross-functional team



Determine critical performance metrics



Determine minimum standards of performance



Reduce the supplier base to those able to meet minimum performance requirements



Assess supplier performance: o

Supplier quality systems assessment

o

Supplier business management

o

Supplier product fitness for use

Cooperation during Contract Execution The cooperation usually concentrates on the following activities: 

Evaluation of initial samples of product



Design information and changes



Surveillance of supplier quality



Evaluating delivered product o

100% inspection

o

Sampling inspection

o

Identifying inspection – examined to ensure that the supplier sent the correct product – no inspection of

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characteristics made o

No inspection

o

Using supplier data (supplier certification)

The chose of evaluation method depends on a variety of factors: 

Prior quality history on the part and supplier



Criticality of the part on overall system performance



Criticality on later manufacturing operations



Warranty or use history



Supplier process capability information



The nature of the manufacturing process



Product homogeneity



Availability of required inspection skills and equipment

Action on non-conforming product Communications to the supplier on nonconformance must include a precise description of the symptoms of the defects. Supplier Certification A “certified” supplier is one whose quality data record establishes that it is not necessary to perform routine inspection and test on each lot or batch received. A “preferred” supplier produces quality better than the minimum. An “approved” supplier meets minimum requirements. ASQ recommends eight criteria for certification: 

No product-related lot rejections for at least one year



No non-product related rejections for at least six months



No production related negative incidents for at least six months



Passed a recent on-site quality system evaluation



Has a totally agreed on specification



Fully documented process and quality system



Timely copies of inspection and test data



Process is stable and in control

Supplier Quality Rating Supplier quality rating provides a quantitative summary of supplier quality over a period of time. Measures in use include: 

Product percentage nonconforming



Overall product quality



Economic analysis



Composite plan (delivery against schedule, price, …)

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Supply Chain Quality Improvement Five tiers of progression for improvement: 1.

Create a joint team of end user and supplier to align goals, analyze the supply chain business process, and work on chronic problems.

2.

Focus on cost reduction, including the cost of poor quality

3.

Evaluate the value added by each link in the supply chain

4.

Exchange information and ideas routinely throughout the chain

5.

Have the supply chain work as a single process with all parties routinely collaborating on improvement opportunities to generate value for customers as well as suppliers

Pareto Analysis of Suppliers The Pareto analysis identifies: 1.

Analysis of losses (defects, lot rejections, etc) by material number or part number.

2.

Analysis of losses by product family (the vital few product families)

3.

Analysis of losses by process

4.

Analysis by supplier across the entire spectrum of purchases

5.

Analysis by total cost of the parts

6.

Analysis by failure mode

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 13 – Operations – Manufacturing Sector

Teaching notes

Quality in Manufacturing in the 21st Century New “world class” quality levels are now common. Customers demand reduced inventory levels based on the “just in time” (JIT) production system. Under JIT, the concept of large lot sizes is challenged by reducing setup time, redesigning processes, and standardizing jobs. But JIT works only if product quality is high because little or no inventory exists to replace defective product. Finally, customers want faster response time from suppliers. The “virtual” organization is a group of companies linked by an electronic network to enable the partners to satisfy a common customer objective. Technology (including computer information systems) is clearly improving quality by providing a wider variety of outputs and also more consistent output.

Lean Manufacturing and Value Stream Management Lean manufacturing is the process of designing manufacturing systems to reduce costs by eliminating product and process waste. The emphasis is on eliminating non-valueadded activities such as producing defective product, excess inventory charges due to work-in-process and finished goods inventory, excess internal and external transportation of product, excessive inspection, and idle time of equipment or workers due to poor balance of work steps in a sequential process. The lean mission is to have the: 

Shortest possible lead time



Optimum level of strategic inventory



Highest practical customer order service



Highest possible quality (low defect rate)



Lowest possible waste (low COPQ)

Throughout the entire supply chain so as to win the marketplace. This is accomplished by synchronizing the flow of work (both internal and external to the company) to the “drumbeat” of the customer‟s requirements. All kinds of waste is driven out (time, material, labor, space and motion). The overall intent is to reduce variation and drive out waste by letting customers pull value through the entire value stream (or supply chain). The key principles of Lean are: 

Specify value in the eyes of the customer



Identify the value stream for each product



Make value flow without interruptions



Reduce defects in products and deficiencies in processes



Let customers pull value



Pursue perfection – six sigma levels



Drive out variation (short and long term)

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Value is created by the customer. Lean starts by attempting to define value in terms of products and capabilities provided to the customer at the right time and appropriate price.

The Eight Wastes Taiischi Ohno (1988) identifies various types of waste: 1.

Overproduction – making or doing more than is required or earlier than needed

2.

Waiting – for information, materials, people, maintenance, etc.

3.

Transport – moving people or goods around or between sites

4.

Poor process design – too many/few steps, non-standardization, inspection rather than prevention, etc.

5.

Inventory – raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, papers, electronic files, etc.

6.

Motion – inefficient layouts at workstations, in offices, poor ergonomics

7.

Defects – errors, scrap, rework, nonconformance

8.

Underutilized personnel resources and creativity – ideas that are not listened to, skills that are not used

Flow and Takt Time The pace or drum beat is determined by takt time, which is the rate at which customers buy one unit. Takt time = available time (in a day) / average daily demand Minimum staffing required = total labor time in process / Takt time TAKT Time Performance Analysis (Days per Drawing) 1.00 0.90

0.87

0.80

Contract Baseline

Days per Drawing

0.70 0.60 0.51

0.48

0.51

0.50

0.43 0.42

0.42 0.40

August

0.45 0.40

0.4

0.37

0.33

0.33 0.33 0.28

0.30 0.30 0.33 0.30

0.28

0.20

0.24

0.24

0.09

0.09

0.19 0.16

0.15

0.13

0.10

0.10

0.00 Copy Dwg

Red-Line

Incorp Red-Line

Check & Revise

Expert Review

Drafting Review

Quality Audit

OLK

Process Step Actual Days per Dwg

Learning Curve Days per Dwg

Aug 31st TAKT Time

Dec 23rd TAKT Time (Contract Baseline)

The inverse conceptualization is sometimes easier for people to understand:

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TAKT Time Performance Analysis (Drawings per Day) 12.0 10.9

10.9

4.1

4.1

10.0 9.6

Drawings per Day

8.0

7.9

6.7 6.2

6.0 5.2

4.0

3.3

3.6

3.3 3.0

2.0

3.0

2.7

2.4

2.1

2.3 2.4

2.0

3.0

3.6 3.0

3.0

2.2 2.5

2.0 1.1

0.0 Copy Dwg

Red-Line

Incorp Red-Line

Check & Revise

Expert Review

Drafting Review

Quality Audit

OLK

Process Step Actual Dwgs per Day

Learning Curve Dwgs per Day

Aug 31st TAKT Time

Dec 23rd TAKT Time (Contract Baseline)

Once takt time has been calculated, constraints (such as long set up times) should be identified and managed (or eliminated) to enable smaller batches or ideally, one piece flow, to eliminate overproduction and excess inventory. Pull production scheduling techniques are used so that customer demand pulls demand through the value stream (from supplier to production to the customer). In pull production, materials are staged at the point of consumption. As they are consumed, a signal is sent back to previous steps in the production process to pull forward sufficient materials to replenish only what has been consumed. The steps for rapid improvement teams (or kaizen teams) to lean out an operation are: 1.

Determine pace (takt time and manpower)

2.

Establish sequence and replenishment (product family turnover and setup/changeover required)

3.

Design the line (proximity, sequence, interdependence)

4.

Feed the line (strategic inventory, standard WIP (SWIP), Murphy buffer)

5.

Balance the line (load, standard work)

6.

Stabilize and refine (5S, continuous improvement)

Value Stream Management The value stream consists of all activities required to bring a product from conception to commercialization. It includes detailed design, order taking, scheduling, production and delivery. Value added activities transform or shape material or information to meet customer requirements. Non-value added activities take time or resources, but do not add value to the customer‟s requirement (but may meet company requirements). Value Added Activities MUST Meet All Three Criteria: 1.

It must physically change the thing

2.

The customer must care about it

3.

The activity is done right the first time (rework doesn‟t count)

The value stream improvement journey typically starts with training the team on key concepts in Lean, mapping the current state using value stream maps which document materials and information flow as well as any pertinent information on the process (such as wait times, processing times, inventory levels). Improvements are identified. The desired future state is then documented as a future state value stream map, and the improvements are implemented to drive toward the future state goal.

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Initial Planning for Quality Review of Product Designs Review of product designs prior to release to operations must include an evaluation of producibility, including: 1.

Identification of key product and process characteristics

2.

Relative importance of various product characteristics

3.

Design for manufacturability

4.

Process robustness – a process is robust if it is flexible, easy to operate, error proof, and its performance will tolerate uncontrollable variations in factors internal and external to the process.

5.

Availability of capable manufacturing processes to meet product requirements

6.

Available of capable measurement processes

7.

Identification of special needs for the product

8.

Material control

9.

Special skills required of operations personnel

Error Proofing the Process An important element of prevention is the concept of designing the process to be error free through “error proofing” (poka-yoke). A widely used form of error-proofing is the design (or redesign of the machines and tools, the “hardware”) to make human error improbable or even impossible. Tools may be designed to sense the presence and correctness of prior operations automatically or to stop the process on sensing depletion of the material supply. Summary of Error Proofing Principles: 

Elimination – eliminate the possibility of error



Replacement – substituting a more reliable process for the worker



Facilitation – Making the work easier to perform



Detection – detecting the error before further processing



Mitigation – Minimizing the effect of the error

Plan for Neat and Clean Workplaces 

Sort – remove all items from the workplace that are not needed for current operations



Set in order – arrange workplace items so that they are easy to find, to use and to put away



Shine – sweep, wipe and keep the workplace clean



Standardize – make “shine” become a habit



Sustain – create the conditions to maintain a commitment to 5S

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The observed process variation is from two sources: variation in the process and variation in the measurement process. 

Observed process variation o

o

Actual process variation 

Long-term process variation



Short-term process variation

Measurement variation 

Variation due to operators 



Reproducibility

Variation due to gauge 

Repeatability



Accuracy



Stability



Linearity

Concept of Controllability – Self Control To place human beings in a state of self-control we must provide people with the following: 1.

Knowledge of what they are supposed to do – clear and complete work procedures, performance standards, and adequate selection and training of personnel Checklist 

Are there written product specifications, process specifications, and work instructions? If written down in more than one place, do they all agree? Are they legible? Are they conveniently accessible to the worker?



Does the worker receive specification changes automatically and promptly?



Does the worker know what to do with defective raw material?



Have responsibilities for decisions and actions been clearly defined?



Do workers consider the standards attainable?



Does the specification define the relative importance of different quality characteristics? If control charts or other control techniques are to be used, is their relationship to product specifications clear?



Are standards for visual defects displayed in the work area?



Are the written specifications given to the worker the same as the criteria used by inspectors? Are deviations from the specification often allowed?



Does the worker know how the product is used?



Does the worker know the effect on future operations and product performance if the specification is not met?



Does the personnel selection process adequately match worker skills with

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job requirements?

2.



Has the worker been adequately trained to understand the specification and perform the steps needed to meet the specifications?



Has the worker been evaluated by testing or other means to see whether he or she is qualified?

Knowledge of what they are actually doing (performance) – adequate review of work and feedback of review results Checklist

3.



Are gauges provided to the worker? Do they provide numerical measurements rather than simply sorting good from bad? Are they precise enough? Are they regularly checked for accuracy?



Is the worker told how often to sample the work? Is sufficient time allowed?



Is the worker told how to evaluate measurements to decide when to adjust the process and when to leave it alone?



Is a checking procedure in place to ensure that the worker follows instructions on sampling work and making process adjustments?



Are inspection results provided to the worker, and are these results reviewed by the supervisor with the worker?



Is the feedback timely and in enough detail to correct problem areas? Have personnel been asked what detail is needed in the feedback?



Do personnel receive a detailed report of errors by specific type of error?



Does feedback include positive comments in addition to negative?



Is negative feedback given in private?



Are certain types of errors tracked with feedback from external customers? Could some of these be tracked with an internal early indicator?

Ability and desire to regulate the process for minimum variation – a process and job design capable of meeting quality objectives; process adjustments that will minimize variation; adequate worker training in adjusting the process; process maintenance to maintain the inherent process capability; a strong quality culture and environment Checklist 

Has the quality capability of the process been measured to include both inherent variability and variability due to time? Is the capability checked periodically?



Has the design of the job used the principles of error proofing?



Has equipment, including any software, been designed to be compatible with the abilities and limitations of workers?



Has the worker been told how often to reset the process or how to evaluate measurements to decide when the process should be reset?



Can the worker make a process adjustment to eliminate defects? Under what conditions should the worker adjust the process? When should the

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worker shut down the machine and seek more help? Whose help? 

Have the worker actions that cause defects and the necessary preventative action been communicated to the worker, preferably in written form?



Can workers institute job changes that they show will provide benefits? Are workers encouraged to suggest changes?



Do some workers possess a hidden knack that needs to be discovered and transmitted to all workers?



Have workers been provided with the time and training to identify problems, analyze problems, and develop solutions? Does the training include diagnostic training to look for patterns of errors and determine sources and causes?



Is there sufficient effort to create and maintain awareness of quality?



Is there evidence of management leadership?



Have provisions been made for self-development and empowerment of personnel?



Have provisions been made for participation of personnel as a means of inspiring action?



Have provisions been made for recognition and rewards for personnel?

The three basic criteria for self-control make possible a separation of defects into categories of “controllability”, of which the most important are: 1.

Worker controllable – a defect or nonconformity is worker controllable if all three criteria for self-control have been met

2.

Management controllable – a defect or nonconformity is management controllable if one or more of the criteria for self-control have not been met

Whether the defects or nonconformities in a plant are mainly management controllable is of the highest order of importance. In the experience of the author, defects are about 80% management controllable.

Automated Manufacturing 

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) – is the process of applying a computer in a planned fashion from design through manufacturing and shipping of the product.



Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) – is the process in which a computer is used to plan and control the work of specific equipment.



Computer-aided design (CAD) – is the process by which a computer assists in the creation or modification of a design.

Planning for Evaluation of Product Formal evaluation of product to determine its suitability for the market place has evolved. The concept of self-inspection combined with a product audit. Under this concept, all inspection and all conformance decisions, both on the process and on the product, are made by the production worker. (Decisions on the action to be taken on a nonconforming product are not, however, delegated to the worker).

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The quality department inspects a random sample periodically to ensure that the decision making process used by workers to accept or reject a product is still valid. The audit verifies the decision process. Self-inspection has decided advantages over the traditional delegation of inspection to a separate department: 

Production workers are made to feel more responsible for the quality of their work



Feedback on performance is immediate, thereby facilitating process adjustments. Traditional inspection also has the psychological disadvantage of an “outsider” reporting the defects to a worker.



The costs of a separate inspection department can be reduced.



The job enlargement that takes place by adding inspection to the production activity of the worker helps to reduce the monotony and boredom inherent in many jobs.



Elimination of a specific station for inspecting all products reduces the total manufacturing cycle time.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 14 – Operations, Service Sector

Teaching notes

The Service Sector In many service organizations, the cost of poor quality ranges from 25 to 40% of operating expenses. The differences among service industries make it difficult to generalize on ways to approach quality, even starting with a definition of the word quality. One approach to further defining quality for the service sector is the SERVQUAL model (Zeithaml et al., 1990). This model identifies five dimensions of quality: 

Tangibles: appearance of facilities, equipment, personnel, materials



Reliability: ability to perform dependably and accurately



Responsiveness: provide timely service



Assurance: trust and confidence in employees



Empathy: individualized attention to customers

Initial Planning for Quality In service industries, the service design defines the features of the output provided to customers to meet their needs. The service design is turned into a reality by the service process, i.e., the process features such as the work activities, people, equipment and physical environment to meet customer needs. Quality function deployment is helpful in designing both service products and service processes. The service process can be reviewed for quality by several means: analyze the process flow diagram, reduce the cycle time, error-proof the process, plan for a neat and clean workplace, provide for supplier quality, qualify the process by validating the process and measurement capability, and plan for personnel selfcontrol.

Analysis of the Process Flow Diagram To prevent problems, we must identify potential problems, usually based on past data or an analysis of the flow diagram. These known or potential problems should be identified on the flow diagram and preventative actions put in place.

Reduction of Process Cycle Time A structured approach for diagnosing the causes and taking corrective action on excessive cycle time: 

Eliminate rework loops to correct process errors



Eliminate or simplify steps of marginal value to the customer



Eliminate redundant steps such as inspections or reviews



Combine steps and have them done by one worker, by several

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workers in a work cell, or by a multifunctional team 

Transfer approval steps to lower levels



Change the sequence of activities from consecutive steps to simultaneous steps



Perform a step after serving a customer rather than before



Use technology to perform both routine and complex steps

The flow diagram is a basic tool for analyzing cycle time.

Error-Proofing the Process Error-proofing the process: 

Eliminate the error-prone activity



Substitute a more reliable process



Make the work easier for the worker



Detect errors earlier



Minimize the effect of errors

Measuring Process Capability When customer needs can be quantified in particular parameters, then process capability indexes can be used to evaluate the process. In the six sigma approach, the process capability can be described in units of sigma. An important quantitative parameter in the service sector is the time to complete a service transaction. A broader approach to evaluating a service process measures four parameters: effectiveness (of output), efficiency, adaptability, and cycle time.

Control of Quality in Service Organizations The formalization of such procedures in the service sector is still evolving. These steps are choose control subjects, establish measurement, establish standards of performance, measure actual performance, compare performance to standards, and take action on the difference.

Process Quality Audits A quality audit is an independent review conducted to compare some aspect of quality performance with a standard for that performance. A process quality audit includes any activity that can affect final product quality. This on-site audit is usually made on a specific process and uses process operating procedures. Adherence to existing procedures is emphasized, but audits often uncover situations of inadequate or nonexisting procedures.

Frontline Customer Contact A basic activity in the service industries is the service encounter, i.e., the contact made with the client when meeting a customer‟s need. In person-to-person type transactions, employee selection often has an

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immediate, direct, and lasting impact on customer perception. Training is essential. Empowerment involves giving a new degree of authority to frontline employees. The term usually means encouraging employees to handle unusual situations that standard procedures don‟t cover. The top six competencies considered most important by service organizations and their customers are: 1.

Build customer loyalty and confidence – meet customer needs and do what is sensible to maintain customer goodwill

2.

Emphathize with customers – be sensitive to customer feelings and show genuine concern and respect

3.

Communicate effectively – be articulate and diplomatic

4.

Handle stress – stay organized and calm and show patience

5.

Listen actively – interpret the meaning of the customer‟s words

6.

Demonstrate mental alertness – process information quickly

Frontline personnel can serve as “listening posts” for an organization.

Six Sigma Projects in Service Industries The Six Sigma approach to improvement includes the phases of define, measure, analyze, improve and control. This approach is increasingly being applied in the service sector.

Quality Measurement in Service Operations Results measures are primarily customer perceptions of outcomes. Detailed inprocess measures predict overview measures and are lead indicators of subprocess outcomes. The approach forms a hierarchy of process control measures – exterior and interior to the organization and at different levels of a process. Quality measurements are candidates for data analysis using statistical techniques such as control charts.

Maintaining a Focus on Continuous Improvement Operations personnel in the service sector (and the manufacturing sector) are involved in addressing sporadic problems (fire drills) and also chronic problems. The key is to not forget to focus on improvement.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 15 – Inspection, Test and Measurement

Teaching notes

The Terminology of Inspection Inspection and test typically include measurement of an output and comparison to specified requirements to determine conformity. Inspection is performed for a wide variety of purposes, e.g., distinguishing between good and bad product, determining whether a process is changing, measuring process capability, rating product quality, securing product design information, rating the inspectors‟ accuracy, and determining the precision of measuring instruments. Inspection, typically performed under static conditions. Testing is performed under either static or dynamic conditions and is typically performed on more complex items such as subassemblies or systems.

Conformance to Specification & Fitness for Use Of all the purposes of inspection, the most ancient and the most extensively used is product acceptance, i.e., determining whether a product conforms to standard and therefore should be accepted. Product can mean a discrete unit, a collection of discrete units (a “lot”), a bulk product (a tank car of chemicals), or a complex system. Product can also mean a service. Product acceptance involves the disposition of product based on its quality. This disposition involves several important decisions: 1.

Conformance – judging whether the product conforms to specification

2.

Fitness for use – deciding whether nonconforming product is fit for use

3.

Communication – deciding what to communicate to insiders and outsiders

The Conformance Decision The work is organized so that inspectors or production workers can make these decisions themselves.

The Fitness for Use Decision The key question is “is this nonconforming product fit or unfit for use?” If enough is at stake, a study is made to determine fitness for use. This study involves securing inputs such as the following: 

Who will the user be?



How will the product be used?



Are there risks to human safety or to structural integrity?



What is the urgency?

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What are the company‟s and the users‟ economics?



What are the users‟ measures of fitness for use?

Once all the information has been collected and analyzed, the fitness for use decision can be made.

The Communications Decision Data on nonconforming products are usually communicated to the producing departments to aid them in preventing a recurrence. When nonconforming products are sent out as fit for use, the need for two additional categories of communication arises: 1.

Communication to “outsiders” (usually customers) who have a right and a need to know.

2.

Communication to “insiders”. When nonconforming goods are shipped as fit for use, the reasons for doing so are not always communicated to inspectors and especially not to production workers.

Disposition of Nonconforming Product If an inspector finds that a lot of product is nonconforming, the lot is marked “hold” and is often sent to a special holding area to reduce the risk of mixups.

Decision Not to Ship The investigation may conclude that the lot should not be shipped as is.

Decision to Ship This decision may come about in several ways: 

Waiver by the designer



Wavier by the customer



Waiver by the quality department – may make fitness for use decisions on noncritical matters. For minor categories of seriousness, the delegation may even be made by the quality engineers or by inspection supervisors.



Waiver by a formal material review board – formal decision and documentation process



Waiver by upper managers – restricted to cases of a critical nature involving risks to human safety, marketability, or risk of loss of large sums of money.

Corrective Action Aside from a need to dispose of the nonconforming lot, there is a need to prevent a recurrence. 1.

Some nonconformances originate in some isolated, sporadic change that took place in an otherwise well behaved process. For such cases, local supervision is often able to identify what went wrong and to restore the process to its normal good behavior.

2.

Other nonconformances are “repeaters”. They arise over and over

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again, as evidenced from their recurring need for disposition by the material review board or other such agency. Such recurrences point to a chronic condition that must be diagnosed and remediated if the problem is to be solved. The need here is to organize an improvement project (Six Sigma).

Inspection Planning Inspection planning is the activity of (1) designating the “stations” at which inspection should take place and (2) providing those stations with the means for knowing what to do plus the facilities for doing it.

Locating the Inspection Stations The most usual locations are: 

At receipt of goods from suppliers, usually called “incoming inspection” or “supplier inspection”



Following the setup of a production process to provide added assurance against producing a defective batch. In some cases, this “setup approval” also becomes approval of the batch.



During the running of a critical or costly operation, usually called “process inspection”



Prior to delivery of goods from one processing department to another, usually called “lot approval” or “tollgate inspection”



Prior to shipping completed products to storage or to customers, usually called “finished goods” inspection



Before performing a costly, irreversible operation, e.g., pouring a melt of steel



At natural “peepholes” in the process

Increasingly, inspection is built into the process rather than being placed at the end of the process.

Choosing and Interpreting Quality Characteristics The planner prepares a list of which quality characteristics are to be checked at which inspection station.

Sensory Characteristics Sensory characteristics are those for which we lack measuring instruments and for which the senses of human beings must be used as measuring instruments. An important category of sensory characteristics is the visual quality characteristic. Approaches to describe the limits for characteristics include: 1.

Providing photographs to define the limits of acceptability of the product

2.

Providing physical standards to define the limits of acceptability

3.

Specifying the conditions of inspection instead of trying to explicitly define the limits of acceptability

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Seriousness Classification The relative importance of the characteristics must be made known to the various decision makers. The resulting classification is used in inspection and quality planning and also in specification writing, supplier relations, product audits, executive reports on quality, etc.

Characteristics and Defects There are two lists that need to be classified. One is the list of the quality characteristics derived from the specifications. The other is the list of “defects”, i.e., symptoms of nonconformance during manufacture and of field failure during use. A problem encountered is the reluctance of the designers to become involved in seriousness classification of characteristics. They may offer that all characteristics are critical, the tightness of tolerances is an index of seriousness, etc…

Automated Inspection Automated inspection and testing are widely used to reduce inspection cost, reduce error rates, alleviate personnel shortages, shorten inspection time, avoid inspector monotony, and provide other advantages. With the emphasis on defect levels in the parts-per-million range, many industries are increasingly accepting on-machine automated 100% inspection and testing. A dramatic example of automated inspection is the concept of “machine vision”. A critical requirement for all automated test equipment is precision measurement.

Inspection Accuracy Inspection accuracy depends on (1) the completeness of the inspection planning, (2) the bias and precision of the instruments, and (3) the level of human error. Human errors in inspection arise from multiple causes, of which four are most important: technique errors, inadvertent errors, conscious errors, and communication errors.

Measure of Inspector Accuracy Some companies carry out regular evaluations of inspector accuracy as part of the overall evaluation of inspector performance.

Errors of Measurement The difference between true value and the measured value can be due to one or more of five sources of variation: 1.

Bias – the difference between the observed average of measurements and the reference value

2.

Repeatability – the variation in measurement obtained with one measurement instrument when used several times by an appraiser

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while measuring the identical characteristic on the same part 3.

Reproducibility – the variation in the average of the measurements made by different appraisers using the same measuring instrument when measuring the identical characteristic on the same part

4.

Stability (or drift) – the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement system on the same master or parts when measuring a single characteristic over an extended period of time

5.

Linearity – the difference in the bias values through the expected operating range of the gauge

Any statement of bias and repeatability (precision) must be preceded by three conditions: 1.

Definition of the test method

2.

Definition of the system of causes of variability

3.

Existence of a statistically controlled measurement process

Affect of Measurement Error on Acceptance Decisions The probability of accepting a nonconforming unit is a function of measurement error. Measurement error can be a serious problem. Observations from an instrument used to measure a series of different units of product can be viewed as a composite of (1) the varation due to the measuring method and (2) the variation in the product itself. This value can be expressed as: O = Sqrt (2P + 2E) where, O is the variation of the observed data 2P is the variation of the product 2E is the variation of the measuring method Solving for P yields P = Sqrt (2O - 2E) The components of measurement error often focus on repeatability and reproducibility (R&R). Repeatability concerns variation due to measurement gauges and equipment; reproducibility concerns variation due to human “appraisers” who use the gauges and equipment. Studies to estimate these components are often called “gauge R&R studies”. The ANOVA method is preferred to analyze the averages and ranges. A common practice is to calculate 5.15 (+/- 2.575) as the total spread of the measurements that will include 99% of the measurements. If 5.15 is equal to or less than 10% of the specification range for the quality characteristic, the measurement process is viewed as acceptable for that characteristic; if the result is greater than 10%, the measurement process is viewed as unacceptable.

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The amount of inspection to decide the acceptability of a lot can vary from no inspection to a simple of 100% inspection. The decision is governed mainly by the amount of prior knowledge available as to quality, the homogeneity of the lot, and the allowable degree of risk. Prior knowledge that is helpful in deciding on the amount of inspection includes: 

Previous quality history on the product iteam and the supplier



Criticality of the item on overall system performance



Criticality on later manufacturing or service operations



Warranty or use history



Process capability information (a 6 process will requirement minimum inspection)



Measurement capability information



The nature of the manufacturing process



Inspection of the first few and the last few items in a production run (usually sufficient)



Product homogeneity



Data on process variables and process conditions



Degree of adherence to the three elements of self-control for the personnel operating the process

Competition to reduce costs has resulted in pressures to reduce the amount of inspection. The concept of inspection by the producers (self-inspection) has added to the focus of reducing inspection.

Economics of Inspection We have several alternatives for evaluating lots: 1.

No inspection – this approach is appropriate if the same lot has already been inspected by qualified laboratories. Prior inspections by qualified production workers have the same effect.

2.

Small samples – small samples can be adequate if the process is inherently uniform and the order of production can be preserved. Small samples can also be used when the product is homogeneous due to its fluidity (gases, liquids) or to prior mixing operations.

3.

Large samples – in the absence of prior knowledge, the information about lot quality must be derived solely from sampling, which means random sampling and hence relatively large samples. The actual sample sizes depend on two main variables: (1) the tolerable percentage of defects and (2) the risks that can be accepted. Random sampling is clearly needed in cases where there is no ready access to prior knowledge.

4.

One hundred percent inspection – This technique is used when the results of sampling show that the level of defects present is too high for the product to go on to the users. In critical cases, added provisions may be needed to guard against inspector fallibility.

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The break-even point for sampling sizes is: Pb =

Inspection cost per item damage cost incurred if a defective units slips through

If the lot quality (p) is less than Pb, the total cost will be lowest with sampling inspection or no inspection. If p is greater than Pb, 100% inspection is best. This principle is often called the Deming kp rule. For example, a microcomputer device costs $0.50 per unit to inspect. A damage cost of $10.00 is incurred if a defective device is installed in the larger system. Therefore, Pb = 0.50 / 10.00 = 0.05 = 5.0% If the percentage defective is expected to be greater than 5%, then 100% inspection should be used. Otherwise, use sampling or no inspection.

The Concept of Acceptance Sampling Acceptance sampling is the process of evaluating a portion of the product in a lot for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the entire lot. The main advantage of sampling is economy. In addition to this main advantage, there are others: 

The smaller inspection staff is less complex and costly to manage



There is less damage to the product



The lot is disposed of in shorter (calendar) time so that scheduling and delivery are improved



The problem of monotony and inspector error induced by 100% inspection is minimized



Rejection (rather than sorting) of nonconforming lots tends to dramatize the quality deficiencies and to urge the organization to look for preventative measures



Proper design of the sampling plan commonly requires study of the actual level of quality required by the user

The disadvantages are sampling risks, greater administrative costs, and less information about the product than provided by 100% inspection. Acceptance sampling is used when (1) the cost of inspection is high in relation to the damage cost resulting from passing a defective product, (2) 100% inspection is monotonous and causes inspection errors, or (3) the inspection is destructive. The concept of prevention (using SPC or other techniques) is the foundation for meeting product requirements. Acceptance sampling procedures are important in a program of acceptance control.

Sampling Risks – the Operating Characteristic Curve Sampling risks are of two kinds: 1.

Good lots can be rejected (the producer‟s risk) – alpha risk

2.

Bad lots can be accepted (the consumer‟s risk) – beta risk

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risks. The OC curve for an attribute plan is a graph of the percentage of defective in a lot versus the probability that the sampling plan will accept a lot. An acceptance sampling plan basically consists of a sample size (n) and an acceptance criterion (c). Sampling variation can cause some good lots to be rejected and some bad lots to be accepted.

Constructing the Operating Characteristic Curve The probability of acceptance is the probability that the number of defectives in the sample is equal to or less than the acceptance number for the sampling plan. Three distributions can be used to find the probability of acceptance: the hypergeometric, binomial and Poisson distributions. When its assumptions can be met, the Poisson distribution is preferable because of the ease of calculation. The Poisson distribution yields a good approximation for acceptance sampling when the sample size is at least 16, the lot size is at least 10 times the sample size, and p is less than 0.1. Table C in appendix II gives the probability of r or fewer defectives in a sample of n from a lot having a fraction defective of p.

Quality Indexes for Acceptance Sampling Plans There are several published quality indexes: 1.

Acceptable quality level (AQL) – the maximum percent nonconforming (or the maximum number of nonconformities per hundred units) that, for purposes of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average.

2.

Limiting quality level (LQL) – defines unsatisfactory quality. Lot tolerance percentage defective (LTPD). Because an LQL is an unacceptable level, the probability of acceptance for an LQL lot should be low.

3.

Indifferenace quality level (IQL) – a quality level somewhere between the AQL and LQL. It is fequenced defined as the quality level that has a probability of acceptance of 0.5 for a given sampling plan.

These indexes apply primarily when the production occurs in a continuing series of lots.

Types of Sampling Plans There are two types of sampling plans: 1.

Attribute plans – a random sample is taken form the lot, and each unit is classified as acceptable or defective. The number defective is then compared with the allowable number stated in the plan, and a decision is made to accept or reject the lot.

2.

Variables plan – a sample is taken and a measurement of a specified quality characteristic is made on each unit. These measurements are then summarized into a sample statistic (e.g., sample average) and

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the observed value is compared with an allowable value defined in the plan. A decision is then made to accept or reject the lot.

Single, Double and Multiple Sampling In single-sampling plans, a random sample of n items is drawn from the lot. If the number of defectives is less than or equal to the acceptance number (c), the lot is accepted. Otherwise, the lot is rejected. In double sampling plans, a smaller initial sample is usually drawn, and a decision to accept or reject is reached on the basis of this smaller first sample if the number of defectives is quite large or quite small. A second sample is taken if the results of the first are not decisive. Because it is necessary to draw and inspect the second sample only in borderline cases, the average number of pieces inspected per lot is generally smaller in double sampling. In multiple sampling plans, one, two or several still smaller samples are taken, usually continuing as needed until a decision to accept or reject is reached.

Characteristics of a Good Acceptance Plan An acceptance sampling plan should have these characteristics: 

The index (AQL, AOQL, etc.) used to define “quality” should reflect the needs of the consumer and producer and not be chosen primarily for statistical convenience.



The sampling risks should be known in quantitative terms (the OC curve).



The plan should minimize the total cost of inspection of all products.



The plan should use other knowledge, such as process capability, supplier data, and other information.



The plan should have built-in flexibility to reflect changes in lot sizes, quality of product submitted, and any other pertinent factors.



The measurements required by the plan should provide information useful in estimating individual lot quality and long-run quality.



The plan should be simple to explain and administer

ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 (1993) is an attributes sampling system. Its quality index is the acceptable quality level (AQL). The AQL is the maximum percentage nonconforming (or the max number of nonconformities per 100 units) that, for purposes of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average. The probability of accepting material of AQL quality is always high but not exactly the same for all plans. The tables (p 505) specify the relative amount of inspection to be used as the inspection level (I, II, or III with III regarded as normal). The inspection-level concept permits the user to balance the cost of inspection against the amount of protection required. See the book for more info.

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Selection of a Numerical Value of the Quality Index The problem of selecting a value of the quality index (e.g., AQL, AOQL, or lot tolerance percentage defective) is one of balancing the cost of finding and correcting a defective against the loss incurred if a defective slips through an inspection procedure. The break-even point for inspection is defined as the cost to inspect one piece divided by the damage done by one defective. Some plans include a classification of defects to help determine the numerical value of the AQL. Defects are first classified as critical, major or minor according to definitions provided in the standard. Different AQLs may be designated for groups of defects considered collectively or for individual defects. Critical defects may have a 0% AQL, whereas major defects may be assigned a low AQL, say 1%, and minor defects a higher AQL, say 4%. Some manufacturers of complex products specify quality in terms of the number of defects per million parts.

Moving from Acceptance Sampling to Acceptance Control Acceptance control is a “continuing strategy of selection, application, and modification of acceptance sampling procedures to a changing inspection environment”.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 16 – Quality Assurance Audits

Teaching notes

Definition and Concept of Quality Assurance Quality assurance is similar to the concept of a financial audit, which provides assurance of financial integrity by establishing, through “independent” audit, that the plan of accounting is (1) such that, if followed, it will correctly reflect the financial condition of the company and (2) is actually being followed.

Concept of Quality Audits & Quality Assessments A quality audit is an independent review conducted to compare some aspect of quality performance with a standard for that performance. The term independent is critical and is used in the sense that the reviewer (called the “auditor”) is neither the person responsible for the performance under review nor the immediate supervisor of that person. The ISO 10011-2-1994 definition: a quality audit is a systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable for achieving objectives. An internal audit is called a first-party audit. External audits are either second party of third party. A second-party audit is conducted within a supplier‟s organization by the organization that is making a purchase from the supplier. The third-party audit is conducted by an auditing organization that is independent of the purchaser or supplier organization. The specific purpose for quality audits is to provide independent assurance that: 

Plans for attaining quality are such that, if followed, the intended quality will be attained



Products are fit for use and safe for the user



Standards and regulations defined by government agencies, industry associations, and professional societies are being followed



There is conformance to specifications



Procedures are adequate and are being followed



The data system provides accurate and adequate information on quality to all concerned



Deficiencies are identified, and corrective action is taken



Opportunities for improvement are identified, and the appropriate personnel are alerted

A key question in establishing an audit program is whether the audits should be compliance oriented or effectiveness oriented or both. In practice, many quality audits are compliance oriented. Effectiveness audits evaluate whether the

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requirement is achieving the desired result.

Principles of a Quality Audit Program Five principles are essential to a successful quality audit program: 1.

An uncompromising emphasis on conclusions based on facts. Any conclusions lacking a factual base must be so labeled.

2.

An attitude on the part of auditors that the audits provide assurance to management and also a useful service to line managers in managing their departments. Thus, audit reports must provide sufficient detail on deficiencies to facilitate analysis and action by line managers.

3.

An attitude on the part of auditors to identify opportunities for improvement. Such opportunities include highlighting good ideas used in practice that are not part of formal procedures. Sometimes an audit can help to overcome deficiencies by communicating through the hierarchy the reasons for deficiencies that have a source in another department.

4.

Addressing the human relations issues discussed.

5.

Competence of auditors. The basic education and experience of the auditors should be sufficient to enable them to learn in short order the technological aspects of the operations they are to audit. Lacking this background, they will be unable to earn the respect of the operations personnel. In addition, they should receive special training in the human relations aspects of auditing. The American Society for Quality provides a program for the certification of quality auditors.

Subject Matter of Audits Quality system evaluation – components and elements 

Organizational design



Customer management practices



Organizational and individual development practices



Product development practices



Product and process control practices



Procurement practices



Warehousing and distribution practices



Quality assurance practices



Information analysis practices



Document management practices

Experienced auditors often can discover opportunities for improvement as a byproduct of their search for discrepancies.

Structuring the Audit Program Reaching agreement on rules and purposes requires collaboration among three essential participating groups:

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The heads of the activities which are to be the subject of audit



The heads of the auditing department



The upper management, which presides over both

Steps in Structuring an Audit Program Audit Dept

Line Dept

Upper Mgt

Discussion of purposes to be achieved by audits and general approach for conducting audits

X

X

X

Draft of policies, procedures and other rules

X

X

Final approval

X

Scheduling of audits

X

Conduct of audits

X

X

Verification of factual findings

X

Publication of report with facts and recommendations

X

Discussion of reports

X

X

Decision on action to be taken Subsequent follow up

X

X X

Planning Audits of Activities Legitimacy – the basic right to conduct audits is derived from the “charter” that has been approved by upper management, following participation by all concerned. Scheduled versus Unannounced – Most auditing is done on a scheduled basis. Customer – the customer of the audit is anyone who is affected by the audit. They key customer is the person responsible for the activity being audited. Audit team – audits are conducted by individuals or by a team. A team usually has a lead auditor who plans the audit, conducts the meetings, reviews the findings and comments of the auditors, prepares the audit report, evaluations corrective action, and presents the audit report. Use of Reference Standards and Checklists The reference standards normally available include: 

Written policies of the company as they apply to quality



Stated objectives in the budgets, programs, contracts, etc.



Customer and company quality specifications



Pertinent government specifications and handbooks



Company, industry, and other pertinent quality standards on products, processes and computer software



Published guides for conduct of quality audits

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Pertinent quality departmental instructions



General literature on auditing

Audit Performance Verification of facts – The facts should be agreed on before the item enters a report that will go to higher management. Discovery of causes – Investigate the major deficiencies to determine their causes. Recommendations and remedies – Auditors are invariably expected to make recommendations to reduce deficiencies and improve performance. In contrast, auditors are commonly told to avoid becoming involved in designing remedies and making them effective. Status of the audit – the key customer should be kept informed about the progress of the audit.

Audit Reporting Audit results should be documented in a report, and a draft should be reviewed (preferably at the post audit meeting) with the management of the activity that was audited. The report should include the following items: 

Executive summary



Purpose and scope fo the audit



Details of the audit plan, including audit personnel, dates, the activity that was audited (personnel contacted, material reviewed, number of observations made, etc.). Details should be placed in an appendix.



Standards, checklists, or other reference documents that were used during the audit.



Audit observations, including supporting evidence, conclusions, and recommendations – using the audit customer‟s terminology.



Recommendations for improvement opportunities.



Recommendations for follow-up on the corrective action that is to be proposed and implemented by line management, along with subsequent audits if necessary.



Distribution list for the audit report.

Distribution of the Audit Report Traditionally, copies of the audit report are sent to upper management for notification, review and possible follow up. Some organizations have adopted a different policy. The audit report is sent only to the manager whose activity is audited, and a follow up audit is scheduled. If the deficiencies are corrected in time for the follow up audit, the audit file is closed; otherwise, a copy of both the audit reports is sent to upper management.

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The final phase of the audit is follow up to confirm that corrective action has been taken by the audited activity and that the corrective action is effective. They key purpose of an audit: improvement.

Product Audit A product audit is an independent evaluation of a product‟s quality to determine its fitness for use and conformance to specification. The purposes of product auditing include: 1.

Estimating the quality level delivered to customers

2.

Evaluating the effectiveness of the inspection decisions to determining conformance to specifications

3.

Providing information useful in improving the outgoing product quality level and improving the effectiveness of inspection

4.

Providing additional assurance beyond routine inspection activities

Audit plans must spell out, or give guidance on, the selection of detailed product dimensions or properties that are to be checked.

Sampling for Product Audit Sample sizes for product audit can often be determined by using conventional statistical methods. These methods determine the sample size required for stated degrees of risk.

Reporting the Results of Product Audit The results of a product audit appear in the form of the presence or absence of defects, failures, etc. A continuing score or “rating” of quality is then prepared based on the audit results. Product audit programs often use a seriousness classification of defects. Defects are classified in terms such as critical, major, minor A, minor B, each with some “weight” in the form of demerits. In product audits, the usual unit of measure is demerits per unit of product. The actual number of demerits per unit for the current month is often compared against historical data to observe trends.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 17 – Basic Concepts of Statistics and Probability

Teaching notes

Statistical Tools in Quality Statistics is the methodology used for the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Probability is a measure that describes the chance that an event will occur.

The Concept of Statistical Variation Variation states that no two items will be perfectly identical. Statistical variation is variation due to random causes, and is much greater than people think.

Tabular Summarization of Data: Frequency Distribution A frequency distribution is a tabulation of data arranged according to size. Show example histogram analysis of courses included in operations and supply chain management majors

Graphical Summarization of Data: The Histogram A histogram is a vertical bar chart of a frequency distribution. The histogram highlights the center and amount of variation in the sample of the data. Graphical methods are essential to effective data analysis and clear presentation of results.

Show example run chart of average response time to calls into a call center

Graphical Summarization of Time-Oriented Data: The Run Chart The run chart is a plot of the data versus time.

What do you use to measure the central tendency of a series of numbers? What else?

Methods of Summarizing Data: Numerical Measures of Central Tendency

Why is the median used?

Data can also be summarized by computing (1) a measure of central tendency to indicate where most of the data are centered and (2) the measure of dispersion to indicate the amount of scatter in the data. Often these two measures provide an adequate summary. The key measure of the central tendency is the arithmetic mean, or average. The definition of average is: x-bar = (sum Xi / n) Another measure of central tendency is the median – the middle value when the data are arranged according to size. The median is useful for reducing the effects of extreme values or for data that can be ranked but are not easily

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measurable, such as color or visual appearance. Another measure of central tendency is the mode – the most frequently occurring value.

Measures of Dispersion The range is the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value in the data. Because the range is based on only two values, it is not as useful when the number of observations is large. In general, the standard deviation is the most useful measure of dispersion. Like the mean, the definition of the standard deviation is a formula: s = Sqrt (Sum (Xi – x- bar)2 / n-1) The square of the standard deviation, s2, is called the variance. The standard deviation is the square root of the average of the squared deviations of the observations from their mean. One useful technique is to calculate a relative measure of variation as the standard deviation divided by the mean (the coefficient of variation). A problem that sometimes arises in the summarization of data is that one or more extreme values are far from the rest of the data. A simple (but not necessarily correct) solution is available: drop such values because they are “unrepresentative”.

Probability Distributions: General A sample is a limited number of items taken from a larger source. A population is a large source of items from which the sample is taken. A statistic is a quantity computed from a sample to estimate a population parameter. It is usually assumed that the sample is random. A probability distribution function is a mathematical formula that relates the values of the characteristic with their probability of occurrence in the population. The mean (mu) of a probability distribution is often called the expected value. Distributions are of two types: 1.

Continuous (for “variable” data). When the characteristic being measured can take on any value (subject to the fineness of the measuring process), its probability distribution is called a “continuous probability distribution”. Most continuous characteristics follow one of several common probability distributions: the normal distribution, the exponential distribution, and the Weibull distribution.

2.

Discrete (for “attribute” data). When the characteristic being measured can take on only certain specific values (e.g., integers 0, 1, 2, 3) its probability distribution is called a “discrete probability distribution”.

The Normal Probability Distribution Using the Normal Probability Distribution for Predictions Predictions require just two estimates and a table. The estimates are x-bar for mu and s for sigma. The find the area under the curve, calculate the difference 2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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Z between a particular value and the average of the curve in units of standard deviation: Z = (X – mu)/sigma Similarly, if a characteristic is normally distributed and if estimates of the average and standard deviation of the population are obtained, this method can estimate the total percentage of production that will fall within engineering specification limits. Thus, 68.26% of the population will fall between the average of the population plus or minus 1 standard deviation of the population, 95.46% of the population will fall between the average and plus or minus two standard deviations, and finally, 99.73% of the population falls within plus or minus 3 standard deviations.

The Normal Curve and Histogram Analysis A random sample is selected form the process, and measurements are made for the selected quality characteristics. A histogram is prepared and specification limits are added. Knowledge of the manufacturing process is then combined with insights provided by the histogram to draw conclusions about the ability of the process to meet the specifications. Histogram analysis can be used to interpret process capability by answering the following questions: 1.

Can the process meet the specification limits (process capability)?

2.

What action on the process, if any, is appropriate?

These questions can be answered by analyzing the following characteristics: 1.

The centering of the histogram – this defines the aim of the process

2.

The width of the histogram – this defines the variability about the aim

3.

The shape of the histogram – when a normal, or bell-shaped curve is expected, then any significant deviation or other aberration is usually caused by a manufacturing (or other) condition that may be the root of the quality problem.

Note that for Six Sigma quality, we need a process (1) centered between the limits, (2) with small variation so that each limit is six standard deviations from the mean, and (3) normally distributed. As a general rule, at least 50 measurements are needed for the histogram to reveal the basic pattern of variation. Histograms based on too few measurements can lead to incorrect conclusions. Histograms have limitations. The time to time process trends during manufacturing are not disclosed. The process may have drifted substantially. In like manner, the histogram does not disclose whether the supplier‟s process was operating at its best. In spite of these short comings, the histogram is an effective analytical tool.

The Exponential Probability Distribution In an exponential population, 36.8% is above the mean and 63.2% below the mean. The exponential curve is also useful in describing the distribution of failure times of complex equipment. A fascinating property of the exponential

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distribution is that the standard deviation equals the mean.

Using the Exponential Probability Distribution for Predictions Predictions based on an exponentially distributed population require only an estimate of the population mean. For the measurement made, the mean time between failures (MTBF) is 100 hours. What is the probability that the time between two successive failures of this equipement will be at least 20 hours? Table B in Appendix II gfives the area under the curve beyond any particular value X that is substituted in the ration X/u. X/mu = 20/100 = 0.20

The Poisson Probability Distribution If the probability of occurrence p of an event is constant in each of n independent trials of the event, the probability of r occurrences in n trials is: (np)re-np / r! where n = number of trials, p = probability of occurrence, and r = # occurrences The Poisson is an approximation of more exact distributions and applies when the sample size is at least 16, the population size is at least 10 times the sample size, and the probability of occurrence p in each trial is less than .1. These conditions are often met.

Basic Theorems of Probability Probability is expressed as a number that lies between 1.0 (certainty that an event will occur) and .0 (impossibility of occurrence). A convenient definition of probability is one based on a frequency interpretation: If an event A can occur in s cases out of a total of n possible and equally probable cases, the probability that the event will occur is: P(A) = s / n = number of successful cases / total # possible cases

Statistical Thinking at Three Levels in an Organization At the strategic level, the focus is on concepts: 

Variation is present in all processes



All work is a series of interconnected processes



Reducing variation improves quality

At the managerial level, the focus is on systems: 

Statistical process control



Experimentation



Robustness of product and process design

At the operational level, the focus is on tools:

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Control charts



Formal design and analysis of experiments



Improvement, planning, and control tools

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 18 – Statistical Tools for Analyzing Data

Teaching notes

Scope of Data Planning & Analysis The central issue in all of these problems is predication of population parameters on the basis of sample results.

Statistical Estimation: Confidence Limits Estimation is the process of analyzing a sample result to predict the corresponding value of the population parameter. In other words, the process is to estimate a desired population parameter by an appropriate measure calculated from the sample values. The estimation statement has two parts: 1.

The point estimate is a single value used to estimate the population parameter.

2.

The confidence interval is a range of values that include (with a preassigned probability called a confidence level) the true value of a population parameter. Confidence limits are the upper and lower boundaries of the confidence interval. A confidence interval is the probability that an assertion about the value of a population parameter is correct.

Mention table 1 on page 583 – summary of confidence limit formulas

Importance of Confidence Limits in Planning Test Programs When the sample size is small, an increase has a great effect on the width of the confidence interval; after about 30 units, an increase has a much smaller effect. The effect diminishes because of the square root in the formula for confidence limits. Doubling the accuracy requires a sample size four times larger. Further, if the sample is selected randomly and if the sample size is less than 10% of the population, accuracy depends primarily on the absolute size of the sample rather than the sample size expressed as a percentage of the population size.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 19 – Statistical Tools for Designing for Quality

Teaching notes

The Exponential Formula for Reliability When the failure rate is constant, the probability of survival (or reliability) is: Ps = R = e-t/ Where

Ps = R = probability of failure free operation for a time period equal to or greater than t e = 2.718 t = specified period of failure free operation 

= mean time between failures (the mean TBF distribution)

The Meaning of Mean Time between Failures 1.

The MTBF is the mean (or average) time between successive failures of a product. This definition assumes that the product in question can be repaired and placed back into operation after each failure. For nonrepairable products, the term mean time to failure (MTTF) is used.

2.

If the failure rate is constant, the probability that a product will operate without failure for a time equal to or greater than its MTBF is only 37%. This outcome is based on the exponential distribution. (R is equal to .37 when t is equal to MTBF).

3.

MTBF is not the same as “operating life”, “service life” or other indexes.

4.

An increase in MTBF does not result in a proportional incresase in reliability (the probability of survival).

The Relationship Between Part and System Reliability It is often assumed that system reliability (i.e., the probability of survival Ps) is the product of the individual reliabilities of the n parts within the system: Px = P1P2…Pn The formula assumes that (1) the failure of any part causes failure of the system and (2) the reliabilities of the parts are independent of one another. This formula shows the effect of increased complexity of equipment on overall reliability. As the number of parts in a system increases, the system reliability decreases dramatically.

Availability Availability has been defined as the probability that a product, when used under given conditions, will perform satisfactorily when called upon. Availability considers the operating time of the product and the time required for repairs.

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Idle time, during which the product is not needed, is excluded. Availability is calculated as the ratio of operating time to operating time plus downtime. 1.

Total downtime – this period includes active repair (diagnosis and repair time), preventive maintenance time, and logistics time (time spent waiting for personnel, spare parts, etc). When total downtime is used, the resulting ratio is called operational availability (Ao). Ao = MTBF / (MTBF + MDT)

2.

Active repair time – the resulting ratio is called intrinsic availability (Ai). Ai = MTBF / (MTBF + MTTR)

Where

MTBF = mean time between failures MDT = mean downtime MTTR = mean time to repair

Setting Specification Limits A major step in the development of physical products is the conversion of product features into dimensional, chemical, electrical and other characteristics of the product. For each characteristic, the designer must specify (1) the desired average (or “nominal value”) and (2) the specification limits (or “tolerance limits”) above and below the nominal value that individual units of product must meet. The specification limits should reflect the functional needs of the product, manufacturing variability, and economic consequences.

Specification Limits and Manufacturing Variability 3 sigma are generally used as initial process limits, called natural tolerance limits.

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Teaching Notes

Chapter 20 – Statistical Process Control

Teaching notes

Definition and Importance of Statistical Process Control Statistical process control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation in a process.

Advantages of Decreasing Process Variability Reducing the variation in a process leads to some great benefits: 

Lower variability may result in improved product performance that is discernible by the customer



Lower variability of a component characteristic may be the only way to compensate for high variability in other components and thereby meet performance requirements



For some characteristics such as weight, lower variability may provide the opportunity to change the process average



Lower variability results in less need for inspection



Lower variability may command a premium price for a product



Lower variability may be a competitive factor in determining market share

Statistical Process Control Charts - General A statistical control chart compares process performance data to computed “statistical control limits”, drawn as limit lines on the chart. The process performance data usually consist of groups of measurements (rational subgroups) from the regular sequence of production while preserving the order of the data. A prime objective of a control chart is detecting special (or assignable) causes of variation in a process – by analyzing data from both the past and the future. Process variations have two kinds of causes: (1) common (or random chance), which are inherent in the process, and (2) special (or assignable), which cause excessive variation. Ideally, only common causes should be present in a process because they represent a stable and predictable process that leads to minimum variation. A process that is operating without special causes of variation is said to be “in a state of statistical control”. The control chart for such a process has all of the data points within the statistical control limits. The object of a control chart is not to achieve a state of statistical control as an end in itself but to reduce variation. The control chart distinguishes between common and special causes of variation through the choice of control limits. These are calculated by using the laws of probability so that highly improbable causes of variation are presumed

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to be due to special causes not to random causes. When the variation exceeds the statistical control limits, it is a signal that special causes have entered the process and the process should be investigated to identify these causes of excessive variation. Random variation within the control limits means that only common (random) causes are present; the amount of variation has stabilized, and minor process adjustments should be avoided. Note that a control chart detects the presence of a special cause but does not find the cause – that task must be handled by a subsequent investigation of the process.

Advantages of Statistical Control A state of statistical control exists when only common causes of variation exist in a process. This condition provides several important advantages: 

The process is stable, which makes it possible to predict its behavior, at least in the near term



The process has an identity in terms of a given set of conditions that are necessary for predictions



A process in statistical control operates with less variability than a process having special causes



A process having special causes is unstable, and the excessive variation may hide the effect of changes introduced to achieve improvement



Knowing that a process is in statistical control is helpful to the workers running a process



Knowing that a process is in statistical control provides direction for those who are trying to make a long-term reduction in process variability



An analysis for statistical control, which includes the plotting of data in order of production, will easily identify trends over time that are hidden by other summarizations of data such as histograms



A stable process (as verified by statistical control) that also meets product specifications provides evidence that the process has conditions that, if maintained, will result in an acceptable product. Such evidence is needed before a process is transferred from the planning stage to full production

Steps in Setting Up a Control Chart 1)

Choosing the characteristic to be charted a)

A Pareto analysis can establish priorities

b)

Identifying the process variables and conditions that contribute to the end product characteristics, in order to define potential charting applications from raw materials through processing steps to final characteristics

c)

Verifying that the measurement process has sufficient accuracy and precision

d)

Determining the earliest point in the production process at which testing can be done to get information on assignable causes so that

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the chart serves as an effective early-warning device to prevent defectives 2)

Choosing the type of control chart

3)

Deciding on the central line to be used and the basis of calculating the limits. The central line may be the average of past data, or it may be a desired average. The limits are usually +/- 3 sigma, but other multiples may be chosen for different statistical risks.

4)

Choosing the rational subgroup. Each point on a control chart represents a subgroup (or sample) consisting of several units of product. For process control, subgroups should be chosen so that the units within a subgroup have the greatest chance of being alike and the units between subgroups have the greatest chance of being different.

5)

Providing a system for collecting the data. It must be simple and convenient to use.

6)

Calculating the control limits and providing specific instructions for the interpretation of the results and the actions that various production personnel are to take.

7)

Plotting the data and interpreting the results

Control Chart for Variables Data For variables data (or continuous data), the control chart for sample averages and sample ranges provides a powerful technique for analyzing process data. A small sample (e.g., five units) is periodically taken from the process, and the average (x-bar) and range (R) are calculated for each sample. A total of at least 50 individual measurements (e.g., 10 samples of five each) should be collected before the control limits are calculated. The control limits are set at +/- 3 sigma for sample averages and sample ranges. The X-bar and R values are plotting on separate charts against their +/-3 sigma limits. Control limits for a chart of averages represents three standard deviations of sample averages (not individual values). Because specification limits usually apply to individual values, the control limits CANNOT be compared to specification limits. Averages inherently vary less than the individual measurements going into the averages. Therefore, specification limits should NOT be placed on a control chart for averages. Sample averages, rather than individual values, are plotted because averages are more sensitive to detecting process changes than individual values.

Introducing Control Charts In introducing control charts, it is essential to prevent confusion about the role of control limits versus specification limits.

Chart for Individuals An alternative to the X-bar and R-chart is the chart for individual X values. This chart, often called a run chart, is a plot of individual observations over time. A chart of individual measurements can be useful when the normal process measurements are spaced some time apart, e.g., one measurement per day from a chemical process or a single weekly measurement from accounting data.

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Types of Control Charts Common Control Charts for Continuous (or Variable) Data 

X-bar and R chart: Also called “average and range” charts. The x-bar means the average of a sample or subgroup. It measures the central tendency of the response variable over time. R is the range or difference between the highest and lowest values in each subgroup. R charts measure the gain or loss of uniformity within a subgroup which represents the variability in the response variable over time.



X-bar and S chart: The average and standard deviation chart is similar, but the standard deviation (instead of the range) is used in the S chart to track the variability within the subgroup.



X-mR chart (also known as I-mR chart): Also known as an individual and moving range chart. Similar to the X-bar and R chart. Instead of charting the subgroup average and range over time, this chart plots each individual reading (subgroup size = 1) and a moving range.



X-mR chart: Standardized individuals and moving range chart. This is used for short runs. Individual values are coded or standardized (Z transformation) so that the performance of the process can be continuously monitored across different products produced by that process.

Common Control Charts for Attribute (or Category Data) 

P Chart: Also called proportions chart. It tracks the proportion or percent of nonconforming units (or percent defective) in each sample over time.



nP Chart: A chart used to track the number of nonconforming units (or defective units) in each sample over time.



C Chart: Used to track the number of nonconformities (i.e., defects, not defective units). Especially useful when a single unit (or length or area) of product may have infinite possibilities for defects. For example, the number of defects on a car.



U Chart: This is a variation of the c chart. This chart tracks the number of nonconformities (or defects) per unit in a sample of n units.

Pre-Control PRE-Control focuses on controlling conformance to specifications, rather than statistical control. PRE-Control starts a process centered between specification limits and detects shifts that might result in making some of the parts outside a specification limit.

Process Capability Process capability is the measured, inherent variation of the product turned out by a process.

Basic Definitions 

Process refers to some unique combination of machine, tools,

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methods, materials, and people engaged in production. 

Capability refers to an ability, based on tested performance, to achieve measurable results.



Measured capability refers to the fact that process capability is quantified from data that, in turn, are the results of measurements of work performed by the process.



Inherent capability refers to the product uniformity resulting from a process that is in a state of statistical control.



The product is measured because product variation is the end result.

Uses of Process Capability Information Process capability information serves multiple purposes: 1)

Predicting the extent of variability that processes will exhibit.

2)

Choosing from among competing processes that are most appropriate to meet the tolerances.

3)

Planning the interrelationship of sequential processes

4)

Providing a quantified basis for establishing a schedule of periodic process control checks and readjustments.

5)

Assigning machines to classes of work for which they are best suited.

6)

Testing theories of causes of defects during quality improvement programs

7)

Serving as a basis for specifying the quality performance requirements for purchased machines.

Standardized Formula Process capability = +/- 3 sigma (a total of 6 sigma), Where sigma = the standard deviation of the process under a state of statistical control. 99.73% of production will fall within +/-3 sigma of the nominal specification.

Relationship to Product Specifications A major reason for quantifying process capability is to compute the ability of the process to hold product specifications. For processes that are in a state of statistical control, a comparison of the variation of 6sigma to the specification limits permits ready calculation of percentage defective by conventional statistical theory. Planners try to select processes with the 6sigma process capability well within the specification width. A measure of this relationship is the capability ratio: Cp = Capability ratio = specification range / process capability = (USL-LSL)/6s Where USL = upper specification limit, and LSL = lower specification limit. 6s is used as an estimate of 6sigma. A defect rate of one part per million requires a capability ratio (specification range over process capability) of about 1.63.

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Cp

% Outside Limits

Typical Actions Taken

5.0%

Heavy process control, sorting, rework, etc.

1.0

0.3%

Heavy process control, inspection

1.33

64ppm

Reduced inspection, selected use of control charts

1.63

1ppm

Spot checking, selected use of control charts

Note that the Cp index measures whether the process variability can fit within the specification range. It does not indicate whether the process is actually running within the specification because the index does not include a measure of the process average (this issue is addressed by another measure, Cpk).

The Cpk Capability Index Process capability, as measured by Cp, refers to the variation in a process about the average value. Thus, the Cp index measures potential capability. Cpk reflects the current process mean‟s proximity to either the USL or LSL. Cpk is estimated by: Cpk = minimum of (X-bar – LSL)/3s and (USL – x-bar)/3s Note that, if the actual average is equal to the midpoint of the specification range, then Cpk = Cp. The higher the value of Cp, the lower the amount of product outside specifications limits. In certifying suppliers, some organizations use Cpk as one element of certification criteria. A capability index can also be calculated around a target value rather than the actual average. This index, called Cpm or the Taguchi index, focused on reduction of variation from a target value rather than reduction of variability to meet specifications. In using Cpk to evaluate a process, we must recognize that Cpk is an abbreviation of two parameters – the average and the standard deviation. Such as abbreviation can inadvertently mask important detail in these parameters. Increasing the value of Cpk may require a change in the process average, the process standard deviation, or both. The histogram of the process should always be reviewed to highlight both the average and the spread of the process.

2007 - Juran’s Quality Planning and Analysis, 5th edition

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