Heavy Equipment (Construction) - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

July 10, 2018 | Author: Xaythinanh Philama' | Category: Heavy Equipment, Industries, Vehicles, Equipment, Industrial Equipment
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Heav eavy equ equipm ipment ent (con (const stru ruct ctio ion n) - Wikip ikiped edia, ia, the the free ree ency encycl clop oped edia ia

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Heavy equipment (construction) From Wikipedia, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Further  Furthe r information: info rmation: Equipment (disambiguation)

vehicles, specially designed designed for  Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, executing construction tasks, most frequently fre quently ones involving earthwork  operations. They are also known as, construction equipment , construction plant, earth movers, engineering vehicles, or simply equipment. They usually comprise comprise five equipment systems: implement, implement, traction, structure, structure ,  power train, control and information. information. [1] Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple simple machine, the ratio between input force fo rce applied and force exerted is multiplied. multiplied.[2] Currently most equipment use hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. motion.

Heavy equipment vehicles of various types parking near a highway construction site

Contents 1 History 1.1 From horses, through steam, to diesel 2 Types 3 Images 4 Implements and Hydromechanical Work Tools 5 Traction: Off-the-road tires and Tracks 6 Structure 7 Powertrain 8 Control and Information 9 Equipment operators 9.1 Operator traini tr aining ng 10 Equipment cost 10.1 Operating cost 11 Models 12 Notable Manufacturers 13 See also 14 References 15 External Externa l links links

Caterpillar D9L bulldozer, excavators and other heavy equipment vehicles  parking  parking near near a quarry quarry in Israel. Israel.

Bulldozer, excavators and other heavy equipment vehicles parking near a quarry.

History  Further  Furthe r information: info rmation: History of construction and History of steam road vehicles

JCB 3CX backhoe loader 

A wheeled bulldozer in A portable engine; a an open pit coal mine  precursor to modern moder n engineering vehicles

An early gasoline powered tractor 

The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius (1st century BCE) gave

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descriptions of heavy equipment and cranes in ancient Rome in his treatise  De architectura . The pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1818.

From horses, through steam, to diesel Until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power. With the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester. The design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor and the steamroller. During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the major power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene, ethanol and gasoline engines were used, but today diesel engines are dominant. Mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery. The early 20th century also saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917. The first commercial continuous track vehicle was the Lombard Steam Log Hauler from 1901. Tracks became extensively used for tanks during World War I, and after the war they became commonplace for civilian machinery such as the bulldozer. The largest engineering vehicles, and the largest mobile land machines altogether, are  bucket-wheel excavators, built from the 1920s. "Until almost the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel moved with animal and human powered, sleds, barges, and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance, usually a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal. In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane, levers, and ignorant to place solid  building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising, moving, and placing loose materials. The two elements required for mechanized earthmoving, then as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of  that time."[3] Container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, and made containerization possible.

Types These subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. See List of Heavy Equipment Equivalents to compare products between manufacturer. Some contractors place numbers on the side of their  equipment corresponding to the category - Grader '02' - followed by a sequential number that usually corresponds to the number purchased. Excavator




Agricultural tractors Air-track  Bulldozer  Track skidder  Track-type tractors (Bulldozer) Tractor  Military engineering vehicles Grader

Grader  SkidSteer

Skid steer loader 

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Compact excavator  Dragline excavator  Dredging Excavator (wheel) Excavator (bagger, digger) Front shovel Reclaimer  Steam shovel Suction excavator  Trencher (machine) Yarder  Backhoe

Backhoe loader, Backhoe

Feller buncher  Harvester  Skidder  Track harvester  Wheel forwarder  Wheel skidder  PipeLayer

Pipelayer  Scraper

Fresno scraper  Scraper  Wheel tractorscraper 

Construction & mining tractor  Construction & mining trucks Articulated

Articulated hauler  Articulated truck  Water wagon Compactor

Wheel dozers – soil compactors Soil stabilizer  Loader

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Loader  Skip loader (skippy) Wheel loader (front loader, integrated tool carrier)

(trailer mount) & Knuckleboom loader  (trailer mount) Telescopic handlers Paving

Track Loader

Track loader  Material Handler

Aerial work platform / Lift table Boomtruck  Cherry picker  Crane Forklift Knuckleboom loader 

Asphalt paver  Asphalt plant Cold planer  Concrete batch plant Cure rig Pneumatic tire compactor  Roller (road roller or  roller compactor) Slipform paver  Vibratory compactor, Compactor 


Stomper:concrete drop hammer 

Venturi-mixer  Highway


Roadheader  Tunnel boring machine Underground mining equipment Hydromatic Tool

Ballast tamper  Attachments Drilling machine Pile driver  Rotary tiller  (rototiller, rotovator)

Dump truck  Highway 10 yard rear dump Highway bottom dump (stiff), pup (belly train), triple Highway end dump and side dump Highway transfer, Transfer train Highway transit-mixer  Lowboy (trailer) Street sweeper 


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The Caterpillar D10N  bulldozer evolved from tracked-type tractors and is characterized by a steel blade attached to the front that is used to  push other equipment and construction materials, such as, earth.

 Normally the bucket is  pulled toward the excavator to excavate material. The uncommon "thumb" attachment on this Caterpillar enables 'grabbing' objects, for  example, during demolition.

The wheel trencher  MARAIS SMC 200 R.

Iron bar reinforced foundation piles are driven with a drilling machine, concrete  pump, mixer-truck, and a specialized auger  that allows pumping concrete through its axis while withdrawn.

Wheel loader 

Grader (plowing snow here)

Landfill compactor  (tamping tip)

A wheeled front loader  tractor equipped with a large bucket elevated  by hydraulic rams.

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Reconditioned Caterpillar 825G Soil Compactor 


Folded conveyor on a tracked grinder 

Military engineering vehicles

The militarized Military scraper  Caterpillar D9 armored  bulldozer allows for  earthmoving projects in a combat environment. In the picture: IDF Caterpillar D9R.

PiPz Dachs armoured engineering vehicle of  the German Army (2008)

Implements and Hydromechanical Work Tools auger   backhoe  bale spear   broom  bulldozer blade clam shell bucket cold plane demolition shears equipment bucket excavator bucket forks

grapple hydraulic hammer, hoe ram hydraulics hydraulic tilting  bucket (4-in-1) landscape tiller  material handling arm mechanical  pulverizer, crusher 

multi processor   pavement removal  bucket  pile driver   power take-off  (PTO) quick coupler  rake ripper  rotating grab sheep's foot

compactor  skeleton bucket snow blower  stump grinder  stump shear  thumb tiltrotator  trencher  vibratory plate compactor  wheel saw

Traction: Off-the-road tires and Tracks  see caterpillar tracks

Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper  selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on production and unit cost. There are three types of  off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earth moving machines, and load and  carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread

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types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction  project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.

Structure "This system connects components, transmits loads, provides attachment points for i mplements, and allows the machine to travel over uneven ground. The machine’s frame, articulation, and steering for wheeled  [1]

equipment are the major parts of this system." 

Powertrain internal combustion

engine transmission

steering (tracked equipment)


Control and Information "The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other   systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the perf ormance and health of the [1]


Equipment operators * see Heavy equipment operator 

Operator training The International Union of Operating Engineers has equipment schools where apprentice operators are trained. The Association of Equipment Manufacturers provides effective safety training materials for operators of rough terrain forklifts and operators of industrial and agricultural mowers. The National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools provides American national certification for heavy equipment operator  In the USA haul trucks are typically operated by Teamsters, who they are included on this page as equipment but have a differing apprenticeship and education system (http://www.nctat.org/ClassListings.asp) . Currently there is not an international association of heavy equipment schools.

Equipment cost [4]

 purchase expense salvage value

tax savings from depreciation major repairs and

overhauls  property taxes insurance


Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually. The following are simple equations paraphrased from the Peurifoy & Schexnayder text:

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m = some year in the future


 N = equipment useful life (years)

 N = 5

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and Dn = Annual depreciation amount  purchase price = $350,000 Dn = purchase price / N

m = 3 years from now

Book value (BV) in year m BV3 = $350,000 - ( 3 x $350,000/5) = $140,000 BVm = purchase price - (m x Dn)

Operating cost For an expense to be classified as an operating cost, it must be incurred through use of the equipment. These costs are as follows:[5]

F.O.G. fuel lubricants, lube oils, filters (oil, air, fuel, hydraulic), and grease

repairs repair parts repair labor 

tires 3rd party service contract replacement of high-wear items

The biggest distinction from a cost standpoint is if a repair is classified as a major repair or a minor repair . A major  repair can change the depreciable equipment value due to an extension in service life, while a minor repair is normal maintenance. Major repairs are charged to the equipment, and minor repairs are charged to the job. It is advantageous for projects to classify all repairs as major, while the equipment department will desire to classify all repairs as "minor" and charge the work to a job.

Models  Main article: Model construction vehicle

Die-cast metal promotional scale models of  heavy equipment are often produced for each vehicle to give to  prospective customers. These are typically in 1:50 scale. The popular manufacturers of these models are Conrad and  NZG in Germany, even for US vehicles.

Notable Manufacturers Atlas Copco Bharat Earth Movers Limited (India) Bobcat Company CASE Caterpillar Inc. Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant - ChTZ CNH Global Deere & Company Demag Doosan Group Doosan Infracore (formerly Daewoo Heavy Industries & Machinery) - including Solar brand DORMASH Fiat-Allis Hitachi- Hitachi, Ltd. Hyundai Heavy Industries Ingersoll Rand JCB

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Kubota Kobelco Komatsu Liebherr Group Madill MARAIS  Navistar International Corporation  NCK   New Holland Terex Track Marshall Orenstein and Koppel GmbH (O&K) Poclain Rototilt SANY Group Company Ltd. ST Kinetics Takeuchi Manufacturing Volvo Construction Equipment Wacker Neuson

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See also Construction equipment theft Ritchie wiki (http://www.ritchiewiki.com/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)

References a b c

1. ^ C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006) (http://scitation.aip.org/getpdf/servlet /GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JCEMD4000132000009000976000001&idtype=cvips&prog=normal) 2. ^ "Machine." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 May 2008, 20:01 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 25 May 2008 . 3. ^ William R. Haycraft "History of Construction Equipment" Journal of Construction Engineering and Management / Volume 137 / Issue 10, Accepted 14 February 2011; published online 15 September 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1061 /(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000374 4. ^ Peurifoy & Schexnayder "Construction Planning Equipment, and Methods" McGraw Hill 6th edition ISBN 0-07-232176-8, 2002. 5. ^ Bartholomew, S.H. “Estimating and Bidding for Heavy Construction” CSU Chico, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-598327-4, 2000 6. ^ "Zoomlion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoomlion) . En.wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoomlion. Retrieved 2012-08-15.

External links Constructionequipment.com (http://www.constructionequipment.com) Earthmoving in P erth Western Australia (http://www.earthmoving-perth.com.au) Heavy Equipment Aftermarket parts (http://www.semspares.com) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Heavy_equipment_(construction)&oldid=517015713" Categories: Geotechnical engineering Engineering vehicles Construction equipment This page was last modified on 21 October 2012 at 06:15. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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